ETC/ICM Report 1/2022
Comparison of multi-metric indicator-based tools for assessment of the environmental status in Europe’s seas
This report compares EU Member States’ Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) 2018 reporting on the Art. 8, 9 and 10 with the recent thematic assessments on eutrophication, biodiversity, contaminants and ecosystem health of the European Environment Agency (EEA) by applying multi-metric indicator-based tools, i.e. new versions of HEAT, CHASE and MESH. The aim of this comparison is to explain the observed differences between the assessments. Further, special focus has been put on the EEA tools and their strengths and weaknesses.