Wireless Sensor Networks and Systems
Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single-point measurements are often insufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions due to the simple adjustment of sensor distribution, sensor types and sample rate. Another advantage of this moblie wireless ad-hoc sensor networks (MANET) is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously.
The communication standard of these devices is IEEE 802.15.4 with a 6LoWPAN protocol and offers bidirectional communication as well as a database connection. Single sensor nodes running microcontroller supported with a TinyOS operation system, whereas the gateway is operating with a Linux embedded system, using a Field Programmable Gate Array. The transmission frequency can be adapted, according to the application.