FRAP − Development of a Procedural Framework for Action Plans to Reconcile Conflicts between Large Vertebrate Conservation and the Use of Biological Resources

Fisheries and Fish-eating Vertebrates as a Model Case


Department Economics, Department Environmental and Planning Law:
Vivien Behrens; Dr. Jaroslav Mysiak; Dr. Felix Rauschmayer; Dr. Irene Ring; Kathleen Schwerdtner; Dr. Randi Thum; Dr. Heidi Wittmer; Dipl.-Ökon. Oliver Zwirner

Department Conservation Research:
Dr. Klaus Henle, Dr. Reinhard Klenke, Dr. Bernd Gruber

Department of Ecological Modelling:
Dr. Karin Frank, Prof. Dr. Christian Wissel, Dr. Peter Alberti


Project funded by the European Union under the Fifth Framework Programme; 13 partners in 9 countries



02/2003 − 04/2006


FRAP has one overall goal: the development of a generic Framework for Reconciliation Action Plans between the conservation of large vertebrates and the use of biological resources by humans. The generic framework will be illustrated using conflicts between the conservation of large fish-eating vertebrates and fisheries as models.

The specific objectives are:

  1. to assess the conflicts between the conservation of fish-eating vertebrates and fisheries from an ecological and socio-economic perspective;
  2. to evaluate and develop successful mitigation strategies and a mix of policy instruments;
  3. to design participatory decision strategies and to develop recommendations for effective stakeholder interactions;
  4. to disseminate the results to stakeholders and the public.

FRAP will develop a generic Framework for biodiversity Reconciliation Action Plans consistent across national boundaries and illustrate this framework for the conflicts between the conservation of seals, otters, respectively cormorants and fisheries. We will evaluate existing information and study the conflicts for regions that either differ in the ecological basis of the conflict or in the use of socio-economic mitigation strategies. The regional comparisons are Denmark versus Italy for cormorants, Central Europe versus Portugal for otters, and Finland versus Sweden for harbour seals and grey seals.

FRAP is organised in eleven work packages (WPs) and three phases: WP 1 is dedicated to project co-ordination. In the first phase, the ecological basis of the conflict is assessed in relation to landscape factors (WP 2) and diet and loss of commercial fish (WP 3). The socio-economic analyses addresses the relevant legal and institutional frameworks at the international and national levels (WP 4), regional economics and policy (WP 5), and mitigation efforts and stakeholder actions at the local level (WP 6). The second phase addresses ecological and socio-economic mitigation strategies and their integration. WP 7 evaluates existing ecological mitigation strategies in terms of their ecological efficacy and cost-effectiveness. WP 8 analyses the consequences of various management scenarios on the population viability of the targeted species. WP 9 develops a conflict reducing mix of policy instruments and suggestions for its implementation. WP 10 designs participatory decision strategies and gives recommendations for effective stakeholder interactions. The work packages 2 − 10 produce one module as their main deliverable each, representing each WP's contribution to the overall generic framework. Finally, WP 11 synthesises these modules into a procedural framework for reconciliation action plans and further concentrates on the dissemination of the results to stakeholders and the public.