Legal instruments for a sustainable bioenergy production


Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Köck
Dr. Grit Ludwig
Dr. Stefan Möckel
Vanessa Richarz (PhD project in cooperation with the department of bioenergy)
Ass. jur. Katja Rath (until 30 June 2010)




01/2009 – 12/2013


To reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and to guarantee the security of energy supply both the European Union and the Federal Republic of Germany rely on renewable energies. In this regard, biomass plays an important role, as it can be used stationary in power generation and for warmth provision, but also as fuel in transportation. But the increasing cultivation of energy crops leads to competition with food production and nature conservation, in Germany as well as worldwide. In addition, emerging conflicts like those about land tenure and water effect the social situation of people in developing countries. In this regard, the Department of Environmental and Planning Law analyses the capability of legislation to guarantee that an increase in biomass production does not lead to interferences with biodiversity, soil and water, and also with social rights. It analyses the existing legal framework that ranges from international agreements and EU legislation to national legislations in Germany and other states. Research within the Department also includes the assessment of the effectiveness of developed concepts and suggestions for legal amendments (e.g. in national nature conservation law). At international level, research topic, among others, is how legislation of Germany and the EU could ensure a sustainable production of biomass in third countries and how sustainability requirements comply with WTO law.

Selected publications:

Ludwig, G. (2012): Property Rights and Participation in REDD+. The Case of Mozambique. Transnational Environmental Law, accepted.

Kaechele, K.; May, P.; Primmer, E.; Ludwig, G. (2011): Forest Certification: A Voluntary Instrument for Environmental Governance. In: Ring, I.; Schröter-Schlaack, C. (Eds.): Instrument Mixes for Biodiversity Policies. POLICYMIX Report, Issue No. 2/2011, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, pp. 162-174, available at

Gawel, E.; Ludwig, G. (2011): Indirekte Landnutzungsänderungen durch Energiepflanzenanbau - Erfassungsmethoden und ihre Bewertung. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung, NuL 43 (8), 237-243.

Gawel, E.; Ludwig, G. (2011): Nachhaltige Bioenergie - Instrumente zur Vermeidung negativer indirekter Landnutzungseffekte. Natur und Recht (NuR), 329-334.

Gawel, E.; Ludwig, G. (2011): The iLUC dilemma: How to deal with indirect land use changes when governing energy crops. Land Use Policy, Article in press, doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.03.003.

Möckel, S. (2011): Agrar- und umweltrechtliche Anforderungen an Kurzumtriebsplantagen. Neue Zeitschrift für Verwaltungsrecht (NVwZ), 663-666.

Ludwig, G. (2010): Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Steuerung der Biomasseproduktion durch die Regionalplanung, Deutsches Verwaltungsblatt (DVBl.), 944-950.

Ludwig, G. (2009): Energetische Verwendung von Biomasse nur mit Augenmaß vorantreiben. NuR, 831-833.

Ludwig, Comment on case C 33/08 - Agrana Zucker GmbH v. Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft - Judgment of the Court (Second Chamber. Jeepl Volume 6 Issue 3, pp. 407-410.

Ludwig, G. (2009): Nachhaltigkeitsanforderungen beim Anbau nachwachsender Rohstoffe im europäischen Recht. ZUR, 317 ff.