The ODD Protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models


ODD (=Overview, Design concepts, Detail) is desigend as a general protocol for communicating individual-based and agent-based models. It has been formulated and tested by 28 authors:

Grimm V, Berger U, Bastiansen F, Eliassen S, Ginot V, Giske J, Goss-Custard J, Grand T, Heinz S, Huse G, Huth A, Jepsen JU, Jørgensen C, Mooij WM, Müller B, Pe’er G, Piou C, Railsback SF, Robbins AM, Robbins MM, Rossmanith E, Rüger N, Strand E, Souissi S, Stillman RA, Vabø R, Visser U, DeAngelis DL. 2006. A standard protocol for describing individual-based and agent-based models. Ecological Modelling 198:115-126. PDF.

The Online Appendix of the paper is available here: Online Appendix


A first update of ODD appeared in September 2010:

Grimm V, Berger U, DeAngelis DL, Polhill G, Giske J, Railsback SF. 2010. The ODD protocol: a review and first update. Ecological Modelling 221: 2760-2768

where we reviewed the use of the ODD protocol so far and present an updated description and explanation of ODD's elements. ODD itself was only slightly changed.

The preprint is available here: PDF

This is a template for using the updated ODD protocol: PDF


An internet forum exists to discuss all aspects of ODD and how to use and improve it. To read one of the threads, just double-click it in the list.

If you want to reply or to post your own thread for the first time, you have to register (takes about 2 minutes; the only personal information required is your e-mail address). After registration, a password will be e-mailed to your e-mail address, so you can login and reply or post your message. In later sessions, you only need to login. If you forgot your password, you can use the "Forgot password?" button.

When posting a message, you can chose to be alerted via e-mail each time somebody contributes to your thread.

The forum is here: ODD forum


ODD is also discussed and promoted by The Open ABM consortium: Open Agent-based Modeling Consortium

Contact: Volker Grimm (e-mail: