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Title (Primary) Groundwater pollution and remediation options for multisource contaminated aquifers (Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany)
Author Wycisk, P.; Weiß, H.; Kaschl, A.; Heidrich, S.; Sommerwerk, K.
Journal Toxicology Letters
Year 2003
Department GWS
Volume 140-141
Page From 343
Page To 351
Language englisch
Keywords Bitterfeld; Megasite; Contaminated groundwater; Chlorinated hydrocarbons; Remediation technologies

Large-scale contaminated megasites like Bitterfeld/Wolfen in the eastern part of Germany are characterized by a regional pollution of soil, surface water and groundwater due to the long and varied history of the chemical industry on location. The pollutants in groundwater may spread to uncontaminated areas and endanger receptors like surface water and drinking water wells according to the site-specific hydrologic regime. In addition, the sheer extension of the contamination at megasites as well as the existence of large densely populated areas and land of high-reuse value prevent a simple risk management strategy of use restriction for the whole area. Since a complete clean-up of the groundwater on a megasite is neither economically feasible nor technically possible within a reasonable time-frame, a multi-approach remediation strategy is needed, taking into account the immediate risks for human health, ecosystem and so-called "protectable goods". Moreover, the contaminants at megasites typically represent a dangerous cocktail of multiple harmful substances stemming from a variety of sources, which may interact with each other and complicate the search for an appropriate remediation strategy. At the SAFIRA-project site in Bitterfeld approaches for in situ remediation of multiple contaminants in groundwater are being tested. Alternatives in local implementation strategies as well as consequences of long-term restrictions for megasites like Bitterfeld need an independent evaluation of the situation using a risk-based approach. For this reason, a GIS-based 3D model of the area including geology, contaminants, hydrogeology, land-use and protected areas has been built. The regional groundwater pollution is characterized by contamination profiles of all monitored substances. In the area of investigation, e.g. threefold and fourfold threshold levels of chlorinated methane, ethane and ethene as well as HCH-isomers, mono-, di- and tetrachlorobenzene, DDT-isomers and benzene are frequently detected in groundwater, that means in at least 60% of the wells that were sampled. High median values of more than 10 mug/l were calculated for cis/trans-1,2-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, chloroethene and monochlorobenzene. In general, the regional distribution of contaminants reflect the different sources and pathways, and give first results from a regional point of view, depending on a land-use classification of specific areas.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Wycisk, P., Weiß, H., Kaschl, A., Heidrich, S., Sommerwerk, K. (2003):
Groundwater pollution and remediation options for multisource contaminated aquifers (Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany)
Toxicol. Lett. 140-141 , 343 - 351