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DOI 10.1897/03-414
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Title (Primary) Fate and metabolism of [15N]2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil
Author Weiß, M.; Geyer, R.; Russow, R.; Richnow, H.H.; Kästner, M.
Source Titel Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Year 2004
Volume 23
Issue 8
Page From 1852
Page To 1860
Language englisch
Keywords [15N]2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene; Biodegradation; Fungi; Azoxytetranitrotoluene; Dinitrogen oxide
Abstract The fates of the labels from [14C] and [15N] trinitrotoluene were analyzed in bioreactors under aerobic conditions in soil treated by a fungal bioremediation process with Stropharia rugosoannulata and in control soil. Up to 17.5% of the 15N label had a different fate than the 14C label. Three N-mineralization processes were identified in detailed experiments with [15N]TNT. About 2% of the 15N label was found as NO3 and NH4, showing simultaneous processes of direct TNT denitration (I) and reduction with cleavage of the amino groups (II). The enrichment of NO2/NO3 (up to 7.5 atom% 15N abundance) indicates the formation of Meisenheimer complexes with a denitration of [15N]TNT. A 1.4% of the label was found distributed between N2O and N2. However, the 15N enrichment of the N2O (up to 38 atom%) demonstrated that both N atoms were generated from the labeled TNT and clearly indicates a novel formation process (III). We propose, as an explanation, the generation of N2O by cleavage from condensed azoxy metabolites. In addition, 1.7% of the 15N label was detected as biogenic amino acids in the wheat straw containing the fungus. Overall, 60 to 85% of the applied [15N]TNT was degraded and 52 to 64% was found as nonextractable residues in the soil matrix. Three percent was detected as 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Weiß, M., Geyer, R., Russow, R., Richnow, H.H., Kästner, M. (2004):
Fate and metabolism of [15N]2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in soil
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23 (8), 1852 - 1860 10.1897/03-414