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Title (Primary) Physicochemical conditioning of dredged heavy metal-polluted sediment in suspension
Author Löser, C.; Zehnsdorf, A.; Voigt, K.; Seidel, H.;
Journal Engineering in Life Sciences
Year 2004
Department UBT;
Volume 4
Issue 3
Language englisch;
Keywords Bioremediation; Heavy metals; Sediments; Suspensions
Abstract The remediation of heavy metal-polluted aquatic sediment by solid-bed bioleaching requires a material well permeable to air and water. Freshly dredged sediment is nearly impermeable and needs previous conditioning to make it suitable for solid-bed leaching. This conditioning – in practice carried out by planting sediment packages with helophytes – comprises water removal by evapotranspiration, abiotic and microbial oxidation of sediment-borne reduced compounds, acidification, as well as structural changes improving the sediment permeability. The rate of this process seems to be limited by the transport of oxygen into the sediment bed. For a better understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring during conditioning, sediment oxidation was studied in a stirred suspension to minimize transport limitations. Freshly dredged, silty, anoxic, heavy metal-polluted sediment from the Weisse Elster River (Germany) was suspended in water and then continuously stirred and aerated at 20 °C. Aerobic conditions appeared within a few hours. The redox potential increased from – 400 to + 220 mV, at first very quickly and later more slowly. Sediment-borne inorganic sulfur compounds were oxidized to sulfate (S0 mainly within two days and sulfide within ten days), which reduced the pH from 7.2 to 5.9. A successive oxidation of FeS to Fe(II) sulfate, the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) followed by Fe(III) oxyhydrate formation caused the dissolved Fe to sharply increase and thereafter rapidly decrease. Ammonium was completely oxidized in a nitrification process to form nitrate, further decreasing the pH to 5.5. The acidification increased the solubility of Mn, Zn, Mg, Ca, and K. The increase in dissolved Mn rules out any oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(IV) since Mn(IV) would have been insoluble under the prevailing pH and redox conditions. Sediment oxidation did not proceed in a well-defined, redox-potential-directed order, but individual (partly microbially) oxidation processes superimposed each other. Physicochemical conditioning of suspended sediment was completed after 20 days while conditioning in a solid bed would require months or even years. These different rates result from transport limitations in the solid bed. Sediment conditioning in a solid bed could therefore possibly be accelerated by prior sediment aeration.
ID 4317
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Löser, C., Zehnsdorf, A., Voigt, K., Seidel, H. (2004):
Physicochemical conditioning of dredged heavy metal-polluted sediment in suspension
Eng. Life Sci. 4 (3), 258 - 265