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Title (Primary) Effects of hydrogen sulfide to Vibrio fischeri, Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and Daphnia magna
Author Küster, E.; Dorusch, F.; Altenburger, R.
Journal Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Year 2005
Department BIOTOX; GWS
Volume 24
Issue 10
Page From 2621
Page To 2629
Language englisch
Keywords Hydrogen sulfide toxicity; Vibrio fischeri; Daphnia magna; Scenedesmus vacuolatus; Species-sensitivity distribution
Abstract The effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were tested in three ecotoxicological tests in order to evaluate its confounding potential in assessment of pore water and groundwater toxicity. The luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the water flea Daphnia magna, and the microalgae Scenedesmus vacuolatus often are part of a biotest battery. A new technique for the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide solutions of defined concentrations using an electrochemical generator instead of sodium sulfide solutions was used. Because hydrogen sulfide is volatile, the loss rate of H2S was studied over time to enable estimation of the mean test concentrations over the whole test duration. Loss rates were calculated to be 13 ± 6% after 30 min, and 39 ± 11% and 43 ± 16% after a 24- and 48-h exposure time, respectively. Sensitivities of the test organisms in terms of median effective concentration (EC50), corrected for the above loss rates, varied from 0.28 to 0.0036 and 0.055 mM for the luminescent bacteria, the crustacea, and the algae, respectively. A species-sensitivity distribution using EC and mean lethal concentration literature data for marine and freshwater crustaceans and phytoplankton showed a medium sensitivity of the water flea D. magna, though the bacteria V. fischeri and the algae S. vacuolatus were among the least-sensitive group of organisms. This demonstrates that only the algae and the bacteria are easy to use in the assessment of toxicity of matrices with H2S concentrations above 0.06 mM.
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Küster, E., Dorusch, F., Altenburger, R. (2005):
Effects of hydrogen sulfide to Vibrio fischeri, Scenedesmus vacuolatus, and Daphnia magna
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24 (10), 2621 - 2629