Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.1128/spectrum.00953-22
Licence creative commons licence
Title (Primary) Changes in composition and diversity of epiphytic microorganisms on field pea seeds, partial crop peas, and whole crop peas during maturation and ensiling with or without lactic acid bacteria inoculant
Author Bachmann, M.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Kuhnitzsch, C.; Kleinsteuber, S. ORCID logo ; Popp, D.; Thierbach, A.; Martens, S.D.; Steinhöfel, O.; Zeyner, A.
Source Titel Microbiology Spectrum
Year 2022
Department UMB
Volume 10
Issue 4
Page From e00953-22
Language englisch
Topic T7 Bioeconomy
Keywords field pea; maturity; silage quality; epiphytic bacteria; eukaryotes
Abstract The present study was conducted under the hypothesis that, in field peas, type of plant material, stage of maturity, ensiling, silage additive, and aerobic stress affect the composition and diversity of epiphytic microbial communities. Epiphytic microbial composition and diversity of pea seeds, partial crop peas, and whole crop peas was analyzed at different stages of late maturity, before and after ensiling, and with or without the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as inoculant. Suitable combinations among pea crop variants, maturity stages, and inoculant use for the production of stable silages with sufficient aerobic stability after opening and during feed-out were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted, and 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced. To assess the quality of the various silages, nutrient concentration, pH value, concentration of lactic acid, short chain fatty acids, and alcohols, and aerobic stability were determined. Pea seeds were barely colonized by epiphytic microorganisms. In partial and whole crop peas, composition and α-diversity (Shannon index) of bacterial communities did not differ between crop variants but differed among maturity stages. Epiphytic eukaryotes were rarely found on partial and whole crop peas. Bacterial composition and α-diversity were affected by ensiling and subsequent aerobic storage. In partial and whole crop peas, plant maturation caused an increase of the relative abundance of naturally occurring LAB (Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus spp.). As a possible result, natural LAB support stable ensiling conditions even without the use of inoculants beginning with a maturity of 78 on the BBCH scale. This corresponded with a dry matter (DM) concentration of 341 and 363 g/kg in partial and whole crop peas, respectively. Addition of LAB inoculants, however, reduced ammonia, acetic acid, and butanol concentrations, and supported aerobic stability. Earlier stages of plant maturity (BBCH 76 and 77, 300 g DM/kg or less) were more prone to microbial spoilage. Stable pea seed silages can be produced at a maturity between BBCH 78 (427 g DM/kg) and 79 (549 g DM/kg), but they undoubtedly require LAB inoculation or application of other ensiling agents.

IMPORTANCE Field peas are important protein suppliers for human and animal nutrition. They can be grown in many areas of the world, which may reduce imports of protein plants and has beneficial economic and ecological effects. Ensiling is a method of preserving feed that can be implemented easily and cost-effectively at the farm. Peas harvested as seeds, partial crop, or whole crop at different maturities enable a wide range of applications. The study characterized epiphytic microbial communities on peas in terms of composition and diversity depending on the maturity of the plants and feed conservation by ensiling as they play an essential role for the production of silages. Even if this study did not consider year, site, or cultivar effects, the results would show which part of the plant is probably well suited for the production of stable and high-quality silages and at which stage of maturity.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Bachmann, M., Wensch-Dorendorf, M., Kuhnitzsch, C., Kleinsteuber, S., Popp, D., Thierbach, A., Martens, S.D., Steinhöfel, O., Zeyner, A. (2022):
Changes in composition and diversity of epiphytic microorganisms on field pea seeds, partial crop peas, and whole crop peas during maturation and ensiling with or without lactic acid bacteria inoculant
Microbiol. Spectr. 10 (4), e00953-22 10.1128/spectrum.00953-22