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Title (Primary) Functional changes of the gastric bypass microbiota reactivate thermogenic adipose tissue and systemic glucose control via intestinal FXR-TGR5 crosstalk in diet-induced obesity
Author Münzker, J.; Haase, N.; Till, A.; Sucher, R.; Haange, S.-B.; Nemetschke, L.; Gnad, T.; Jäger, E.; Chen, J.; Riede, S.J.; Chakaroun, R.; Massier, L.; Kovacs, P.; Ost, M.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; Jehmlich, N.; Weinert, J.; Heiker, J.T.; Klöting, N.; Seeger, G.; Morawski, M.; Keitel, V.; Pfeifer, A.; von Bergen, M.; Heeren, J.; Krügel, U.; Fenske, W.K.
Journal Microbiome
Year 2022
Department MOLSYB
Volume 10
Page From art. 96
Language englisch
Topic T9 Healthy Planet
Supplements https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-022-01264-5#Sec15
Keywords Gastric bypass; Gut microbiota; FXR; TGR5; Bile acids; Taurine metabolism
Abstract

Background

Bariatric surgery remains the most effective therapy for adiposity reduction and remission of type 2 diabetes. Although different bariatric procedures associate with pronounced shifts in the gut microbiota, their functional role in the regulation of energetic and metabolic benefits achieved with the surgery are not clear.

Methods

To evaluate the causal as well as the inherent therapeutic character of the surgery-altered gut microbiome in improved energy and metabolic control in diet-induced obesity, an antibiotic cocktail was used to eliminate the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats after gastric bypass surgery, and gastric bypass-shaped gut microbiota was transplanted into obese littermates. Thorough metabolic profiling was combined with omics technologies on samples collected from cecum and plasma to identify adaptions in gut microbiota-host signaling, which control improved energy balance and metabolic profile after surgery.

Results

In this study, we first demonstrate that depletion of the gut microbiota largely reversed the beneficial effects of gastric bypass surgery on negative energy balance and improved glucolipid metabolism. Further, we show that the gastric bypass-shaped gut microbiota reduces adiposity in diet-induced obese recipients by re-activating energy expenditure from metabolic active brown adipose tissue. These beneficial effects were linked to improved glucose homeostasis, lipid control, and improved fatty liver disease. Mechanistically, these effects were triggered by modulation of taurine metabolism by the gastric bypass gut microbiota, fostering an increased abundance of intestinal and circulating taurine-conjugated bile acid species. In turn, these bile acids activated gut-restricted FXR and systemic TGR5 signaling to stimulate adaptive thermogenesis.

Conclusion

Our results establish the role of the gut microbiome in the weight loss and metabolic success of gastric bypass surgery. We here identify a signaling cascade that entails altered bile acid receptor signaling resulting from a collective, hitherto undescribed change in the metabolic activity of a cluster of bacteria, thereby readjusting energy imbalance and metabolic disease in the obese host. These findings strengthen the rationale for microbiota-targeted strategies to improve and refine current therapies of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Persistent UFZ Identifier https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=26302
Münzker, J., Haase, N., Till, A., Sucher, R., Haange, S.-B., Nemetschke, L., Gnad, T., Jäger, E., Chen, J., Riede, S.J., Chakaroun, R., Massier, L., Kovacs, P., Ost, M., Rolle-Kampczyk, U., Jehmlich, N., Weinert, J., Heiker, J.T., Klöting, N., Seeger, G., Morawski, M., Keitel, V., Pfeifer, A., von Bergen, M., Heeren, J., Krügel, U., Fenske, W.K. (2022):
Functional changes of the gastric bypass microbiota reactivate thermogenic adipose tissue and systemic glucose control via intestinal FXR-TGR5 crosstalk in diet-induced obesity
Microbiome 10 , art. 96