|Title (Primary)||Impact of fungal hyphae on growth and dispersal of obligate anaerobic bacteria in aerated habitats|
|Author||Xiong, B.-J.; Kleinsteuber, S. ; Sträuber, H.; Dusny, C.; Harms, H.; Wick, L.Y.|
|Keywords||Coprinopsis cinerea; oxygen; hyphae; bacterial-fungal interactions; mycosphere; planar optode; nanoparticles; phase-contrast microscopy|
|Abstract||ABSTRACTAnoxic microsites arising in fungal biofilms may foster the presence of obligate anaerobes. Here, we analyzed whether and to which degree hyphae of Coprinopsis cinerea thriving in oxic habitats enable the germination, growth, and dispersal of the obligate anaerobic soil bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Time-resolved optical oxygen mapping, microscopy, and metabolite analysis revealed the formation and persistence of anoxic circum hyphal niches, allowing for spore germination, growth, and fermentative activity of the obligate anaerobe in an otherwise inhabitable environment. Hypoxic liquid films containing 80% ± 10% of atmospheric oxygen saturation around single air-exposed hyphae thereby allowed for efficient clostridial dispersal amid spatially separated (>0.5 cm) anoxic sites. Hyphae hence may serve as good networks for the activity and spatial organization of obligate anaerobic bacteria in oxygenated heterogeneous environments such as soil.
IMPORTANCE Although a few studies have reported on the presence of anoxic microniches in fungal biofilms, knowledge of the effects of fungal oxygen consumption on bacterial-fungal interactions is limited. Here, we demonstrate the existence and persistence of oxygen-free zones in air-exposed mycelia enabling spore germination, growth, fermentative activity, and dispersal of the obligate anaerobe. Our study points out a previously overlooked role of aerobic fungi in creating and bridging anoxic microniches in ambient oxic habitats. Air-exposed hyphae hence may act as a scaffold for activity and dispersal of strictly anaerobic microbes. Given the short-term tolerance of strict anaerobes to oxygen and reduced oxygen content in the mycosphere, hyphae can promote spatial organization of both obligate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. Such finding may be important for a better understanding of previously observed co-occurrences of aerobes and anaerobes in well-aerated habitats such as upland soils.
|Persistent UFZ Identifier||https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=26116|
|Xiong, B.-J., Kleinsteuber, S., Sträuber, H., Dusny, C., Harms, H., Wick, L.Y. (2022):
Impact of fungal hyphae on growth and dispersal of obligate anaerobic bacteria in aerated habitats
mBio 13 (3), e00769-22