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Title (Primary) Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation allow characterizing the reaction mechanisms of 1H-benzotriazole aqueous phototransformation
Author Wu, L.; Suchana, S.; Flick, R.; Kümmel, S.; Richnow, H.; Passeport, E.
Journal Water Research
Year 2021
Department ISOBIO
Volume 203
Page From art. 117519
Language englisch
Topic T7 Bioeconomy
Keywords Photodegradation; water quality; stable isotopes; OH radicals; benzotriazole
Abstract 1H-benzotriazole is part of a larger family of benzotriazoles which are widely used as lubricants, polymer stabilizers, corrosion inhibitors, and anti-icing fluid components. It is frequently detected in urban runoff, wastewater, and receiving aquatic environments. 1H-benzotriazole is typically resistant to biodegradation and hydrolysis, but can be transformed via direct photolysis and photoinduced mechanisms. In this study, the phototransformation mechanisms of 1H-benzotriazole were characterized using multi-element compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). The kinetics, transformation products, and isotope fractionation results altogether revealed that 1H-benzotriazole direct photolysis and indirect photolysis induced by OH radicals involved two alternative pathways. In indirect photolysis, aromatic hydroxylation dominated and was associated with small carbon (εC = −0.65 ± 0.03 ‰), moderate hydrogen (εH = −21.6‰), and negligible nitrogen isotope enrichment factors and led to hydroxylated forms of benzotriazole. In direct photolysis of 1H-benzotriazole, significant nitrogen (εN = −8.4 ± 0.4 to −4.2 ± 0.3 ‰) and carbon (εC = −4.3 ± 0.2 to −1.64 ± 0.04 ‰) isotope enrichment factors indicated an initial N-N bond cleavage followed by nitrogen elimination with a C-N bond cleavage. The results of this study highlight the potential for multi-element CSIA application to track 1H-benzotriazole degradation in aquatic environments.
Persistent UFZ Identifier https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=24982
Wu, L., Suchana, S., Flick, R., Kümmel, S., Richnow, H., Passeport, E. (2021):
Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen stable isotope fractionation allow characterizing the reaction mechanisms of 1H-benzotriazole aqueous phototransformation
Water Res. 203 , art. 117519