Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.3997/1873-0604.2005047
Title (Primary) Analysis of multi-offset GPR data: a case study in a coarse-grained gravel aquifer
Author Becht, A.; Appel, E.; Dietrich, P. ORCID logo
Journal Near Surface Geophysics
Year 2006
Department MET
Volume 4
Issue 4
Page From 227
Page To 240
Language englisch
Abstract Multi-offset ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in a coarse-grained gravel aquifer located in a glacial delta environment within dipping foresets (at the Tettnang aquifer test site, SW Germany). We apply prestack processing techniques and normal-moveout (NMO) velocity analysis in preparation for stacking. The estimation of propagation velocities is of considerable importance for converting time-domain radargrams into depth-sections and for an interpretation in terms of petrophysical properties. In our case, interval velocity determination is difficult because reflector dip angles are variable, and stacking and NMO velocities differ significantly since the antenna offset is comparable to the reflector depth. Using a synthetic two-layer model, we systematically study possible errors in interval velocity determination. We compare the cases of decreasing velocity with depth (typical for ground-penetrating (GPR) surveys of aquifers) and increasing velocity with depth (typical for seismic surveys). In the case of decreasing velocity with depth, the discrepancy between stacking and NMO velocity is considerable and, consequently, interval velocities calculated with the Dix equation or the more accurate 2D NMO approximation for dipping layers show unacceptably high errors. The errors are much smaller in comparable models with increasing velocity with depth. Thus, the small-offset approximation inherent in the NMO concept is not appropriate for the first case. Consequently, it is necessary to model the true common-midpoint (CMP) raypaths to determine realistic interval velocities from our GPR field data. Stacked GPR sections of multi-offset data show significant improvements in imaging of reflectors and depth of investigation compared with a standard constant-offset section. This allows a more reliable interpretation of geological structures. Simultaneous acquisition of four channels, which is possible with some commercial GPR systems, yields significantly better results than constant-offset standard acquisition without increasing the efforts for data acquisition. Major reflectors in the GPR section can be correlated with distinct contrasts of porosity, represented by the base of open-framework gravels and sand beds within poorly sorted gravels.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Becht, A., Appel, E., Dietrich, P. (2006):
Analysis of multi-offset GPR data: a case study in a coarse-grained gravel aquifer
Near Surf. Geophys. 4 (4), 227 - 240