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Title (Primary) Cytoklepty in the plankton: A host strategy to optimize the bioenergetic machinery of endosymbiotic algae
Author Uwizeye, C.; Mars Brisbin, M.; Gallet, B.; Chevalier, F.; LeKieffre, C.; Schieber, N.L.; Falconet, D.; Wangpraseurt, D.; Schertel, L.; Stryhanyuk, H.; Musat, N.; Mitarai, S.; Schwab, Y.; Finazzi, G.; Decelle, J.
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Year 2021
Department ISOBIO
Volume 118
Issue 27
Page From e2025252118
Language englisch
Topic T7 Bioeconomy
Keywords symbiosis; oceanic plankton; photosynthesis; 3D electron microscopy; single-cell transcriptomics
UFZ wide themes ProVIS;
Abstract Endosymbioses have shaped the evolutionary trajectory of life and remain ecologically important. Investigating oceanic photosymbioses can illuminate how algal endosymbionts are energetically exploited by their heterotrophic hosts and inform on putative initial steps of plastid acquisition in eukaryotes. By combining three-dimensional subcellular imaging with photophysiology, carbon flux imaging, and transcriptomics, we show that cell division of endosymbionts (Phaeocystis) is blocked within hosts (Acantharia) and that their cellular architecture and bioenergetic machinery are radically altered. Transcriptional evidence indicates that a nutrient-independent mechanism prevents symbiont cell division and decouples nuclear and plastid division. As endosymbiont plastids proliferate, the volume of the photosynthetic machinery volume increases 100-fold in correlation with the expansion of a reticular mitochondrial network in close proximity to plastids. Photosynthetic efficiency tends to increase with cell size, and photon propagation modeling indicates that the networked mitochondrial architecture enhances light capture. This is accompanied by 150-fold higher carbon uptake and up-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis and carbon fixation, which, in conjunction with a ca.15-fold size increase of pyrenoids demonstrates enhanced primary production in symbiosis. Mass spectrometry imaging revealed major carbon allocation to plastids and transfer to the host cell. As in most photosymbioses, microalgae are contained within a host phagosome (symbiosome), but here, the phagosome invaginates into enlarged microalgal cells, perhaps to optimize metabolic exchange. This observation adds evidence that the algal metamorphosis is irreversible. Hosts, therefore, trigger and benefit from major bioenergetic remodeling of symbiotic microalgae with potential consequences for the oceanic carbon cycle. Unlike other photosymbioses, this interaction represents a so-called cytoklepty, which is a putative initial step toward plastid acquisition.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Uwizeye, C., Mars Brisbin, M., Gallet, B., Chevalier, F., LeKieffre, C., Schieber, N.L., Falconet, D., Wangpraseurt, D., Schertel, L., Stryhanyuk, H., Musat, N., Mitarai, S., Schwab, Y., Finazzi, G., Decelle, J. (2021):
Cytoklepty in the plankton: A host strategy to optimize the bioenergetic machinery of endosymbiotic algae
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118 (27), e2025252118