Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2023.119740
Document author version
Title (Primary) Isotopically labeled ozone: A new approach to elucidate the formation of ozonation products
Author Sierra Olea, M.; Kölle, S.; Bein, E.; Reemtsma, T.; Lechtenfeld, O.J.; Hübner, U.
Journal Water Research
Year 2023
Department ANA
Volume 233
Page From art. 119740
Language englisch
Topic T9 Healthy Planet
Abstract As ozonation becomes a widespread treatment for removal of chemicals of emerging concern in wastewater treatment plant effluents, there are increasing concerns regarding the formation of ozonation products (OPs), and their possible impacts on the aquatic environment and eventually human health. In this study, a novel method was developed that utilizes heavy oxygen (18O2) for the production of heavy ozone ([18O1]O2, [18O2]O1, [18O3]) to actively label OPs from oxygen transfer reactions. To establish and validate this new approach, venlafaxine with a well-described oxygen transfer reaction (tertiary amine -> N-oxide) was chosen as a model compound. Observed 18O/16O ratios in the major OP venlafaxine N-oxide (NOV) correlated with expected 18O purities based on tracer experiments. These results confirmed the successful labeling with heavy oxygen and furthermore demonstrate the potential to monitor NOV as an indicator of 18O/16O ratios during ozonation. As a next step, 18O/16O ratios were used to elucidate the formation mechanism of previously described OPs from sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Seven OPs were detected including the frequently described nitro-SMX, which was formed with a maximum yield of 3.2% (of initial SMX). With the successful labeling of six of the seven OPs from sulfamethoxazole, it was possible to confirm their previously proposed formation pathways, and distinguish oxygen transfer from electron transfer reactions. 18O/16O ratios in OPs indicate that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and formation of nitro-groups mostly follows oxygen transfer reactions, while electron transfer reactions initiate the formation of hydroxylamine and the abstraction of NH2 leading to catechol.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Sierra Olea, M., Kölle, S., Bein, E., Reemtsma, T., Lechtenfeld, O.J., Hübner, U. (2023):
Isotopically labeled ozone: A new approach to elucidate the formation of ozonation products
Water Res. 233 , art. 119740