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Title (Primary) Integrated mapping of spatial urban dynamics—A European-Chinese exploration. Part 1—Methodology for automatic land cover classification tailored towards spatial allocation of ecosystem services features
Author Banzhaf, E.; Wu, W.; Luo, X.; Knopp, J.
Journal Remote Sensing
Year 2021
Department SUSOZ
Volume 13
Issue 9
Page From art. 1744
Language englisch
Topic T5 Future Landscapes
Keywords urbanisation; satellite image preprocessing; automatic extraction of sample points; grey, green and blue infrastructures; Google Earth Engine (GEE)
Abstract

Urbanisation processes inherently influence land cover (LC) and have dramatic impacts on the amount, distribution and quality of vegetation cover. The latter are the source of ecosystem services (ES) on which humans depend. However, the temporal and thematical dimensions are not documented in a comparable manner across Europe and China. Three cities in China and three cities in Europe were selected as case study areas to gain a picture of spatial urban dynamics at intercontinental scale. First, we analysed available global and continental thematic LC products as a data pool for sample selection and referencing our own mapping model. With the help of the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and earth observation data, an automatic LC mapping method tailored for more detailed ES features was proposed. To do so, differentiated LC categories were quantified. In order to obtain a balance between efficiency and high classification accuracy, we developed an optimal classification model by evaluating the importance of a large number of spectral, texture-based indices and topographical information. The overall classification accuracies range between 73% and 95% for different time slots and cities. To capture ES related LC categories in great detail, deciduous and coniferous forests, cropland, grassland and bare land were effectively identified. To understand inner urban options for potential new ES, dense and dispersed built-up areas were differentiated with good results. In addition, this study focuses on the differences in the characteristics of urban expansion witnessed in China and Europe. Our results reveal that urbanisation has been more intense in the three Chinese cities than in the three European cities, with an 84% increase in the entire built-up area over the last two decades. However, our results also show the results of China’s ecological restoration policies, with a total of 963 km2 of new green and blue LC created in the last two decades. We proved that our automatic mapping can be effectively applied to future studies, and the monitoring results will be useful for consecutive ES analyses aimed at achieving more environmentally friendly cities.

Persistent UFZ Identifier https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=24525
Banzhaf, E., Wu, W., Luo, X., Knopp, J. (2021):
Integrated mapping of spatial urban dynamics—A European-Chinese exploration. Part 1—Methodology for automatic land cover classification tailored towards spatial allocation of ecosystem services features
Remote Sens. 13 (9), art. 1744