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Title (Primary) Do drivers of nature visitation vary spatially? The importance of context for understanding visitation of nature areas in Europe and North America
Author Gosal, A.S.; Giannichi, M.L.; Beckmann, M.; Comber, A.; Massenberg, J.R.; Palliwoda, J.; Roddis, P.; Sch├Ągner, J.P.; Wilson, J.; Ziv, G.;
Journal Science of the Total Environment
Year 2021
Department OEKON; CLE;
Volume 776
Language englisch;
Keywords Cultural Ecosystem Services; recreation; nature sites; multiscale geographically weighted regression; MGWR; protected areas

Nature visitation is important, both culturally and economically. Given the contribution of nature recreation to multiple societal goals, comprehending determinants of nature visitation is essential to understand the drivers associated with the popularity of nature areas, for example, to inform land-use planning or site management strategies to maximise benefits. Understanding the factors related to nature, tourism and recreation can support the management of nature areas and thereby, also conservation efforts and biodiversity protection. This study applied a Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression (MGWR) to quantify the spatially varying influence of different factors associated with nature visitation in Europe and North America.

Results indicated that some explanatory variables were stationary for all sites (age 15 to 65, population density (within 25 km), GDP, area, built-up areas, plateaus, and mountains). In contrast, others exhibited significant spatial non-stationarity (locally variable): needle-leaf trees (conifers), trails, travel time, roads, and Red List birds and amphibians. Needle-leaf trees and travel time were found to be negatively significant in Europe. Roads were found to have a significant positive effect in North America. Trails and Red List bird species were found to have a positive effect in both North America and North Europe, with a greater effect in Europe. Red List amphibians was the only spatially variable predictor to have both a positive and negative impact, with selected sites in North America and northern Europe being positive, whereas Iceland and central and southern Europe were negative. The scale of the response-predictor relationship (bandwidth) of these locally variable predictors was smallest for Red List amphibians at 1033 km, with all other spatially variable predictors between 9,558 and 12,285 km.

The study demonstrates the contribution that MGWR, a spatially explicit model, can make to support a deeper understanding of processes associated with nature visitation in different geographic contexts.

ID 24282
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Gosal, A.S., Giannichi, M.L., Beckmann, M., Comber, A., Massenberg, J.R., Palliwoda, J., Roddis, P., Sch├Ągner, J.P., Wilson, J., Ziv, G. (2021):
Do drivers of nature visitation vary spatially? The importance of context for understanding visitation of nature areas in Europe and North America
Sci. Total Environ. 776 , art. 145190