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Title (Primary) In situ pilot application of nZVI embedded in activated carbon for remediation of chlorinated ethene‑contaminated groundwater: effect on microbial communities
Author Czinnerova, M.; Nguyen, N.H.A.; Nemecek, J.; Mackenzie, K.; Boothman, C.; Lloyd, J.; Laszlo, T.; Spanek, R.; Cernik, M.; Sevcu, A.
Journal Environmental Sciences Europe
Year 2020
Department TUCHEM
Volume 32
Page From art. 154
Language englisch
Supplements https://ndownloader.figstatic.com/files/25644919
Keywords nZVI–AC; nZVI; Chlorinated ethenes; Reductive dechlorination; Organohalide-respiring bacteria; Microbial community; Next generation sequencing
Abstract Background: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is commonly used for remediation of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethenes (CEs); however, its long-term reactivity and subsurface transport are limited. A novel nZVI–AC material, consisting of colloidal activated carbon (AC) with embedded nZVI clusters, was developed with the aim of overcoming the limitations of nZVI alone.
Results: Application of a limited amount of nZVI–AC to an oxic, nitrate-rich, highly permeable quaternary aquifer triggered time-limited transformation of CEs, with noticeable involvement of reductive dechlorination. Reductive dechlorination of CEs was dominantly abiotic, as an increase in the concentration of vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene did not coincide with an increase in the abundance of reductive biomarkers for complete dechlorination of CEs (Dehalococcoides, Dehalogenimonas, VC reductase genes vcrA and bvcA). Application of nZVI–AC under unfavourable hydrochemical conditions resulted in no dramatic change in the microbial community, the reducing effect resulting in temporal proliferation of nitrate and iron reducers only. At a later stage, generation of reduced iron induced an increase in iron-oxidizing bacteria. High concentrations and a continuous mass influx of competing electron acceptors (nitrate and dissolved oxygen) created unfavourable conditions for sulphate-reducers and organohalide-respiring bacteria, though it allowed the survival of aerobic microorganisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Polaromonas and Rhodoferax, known for their ability to assimilate VC or cis-1,2-dichloroethene. A potential for aerobic oxidative degradation of CE metabolites was also indicated by detection of the ethenotroph functional gene etnE.
Conclusions: This pilot study, based on the application of nZVI–AC, failed to provide a sustainable effect on CEcontamination; however, it provided valuable insights into induced hydrogeochemical and microbial processes that could help in designing full-scale applications.
Persistent UFZ Identifier https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=23970
Czinnerova, M., Nguyen, N.H.A., Nemecek, J., Mackenzie, K., Boothman, C., Lloyd, J., Laszlo, T., Spanek, R., Cernik, M., Sevcu, A. (2020):
In situ pilot application of nZVI embedded in activated carbon for remediation of chlorinated ethene‑contaminated groundwater: effect on microbial communities
Environ. Sci. Eur. 32 , art. 154