Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136748
Document accepted manuscript
Title (Primary) Occurrence and risk assessment of organic micropollutants in freshwater systems within the Lake Victoria South Basin, Kenya
Author Kandie, F.J.; Krauss, M. ORCID logo ; Beckers, L.-M.; Massei, R.; Fillinger, U.; Becker, J.; Liess, M.; Torto, B.; Brack, W.
Source Titel Science of the Total Environment
Year 2020
Department WANA; OEKOTOX
Volume 714
Page From art. 136748
Language englisch
Keywords Emerging contaminants; Western Kenya; Risk assessment; Surface water; Prioritization
Abstract The unintended release of chemicals to the environment has led to global concern on water quality prompting widespread research on the occurrence of these compounds in water. While increasing information on organic micropollutants (OMPs) in European water resources is available, there is still limited information on the occurrence of OMPs in African water systems. In this study, a multi-residue analysis covering 428 chemicals using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was performed on water samples collected from 48 surface water sites within the Lake Victoria South Basin, Kenya. A total of 75 compounds including pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, and industrial chemicals were detected and an additional three compounds (nevirapine, lamivudine and adenosine) were identified through suspect screening. Four compounds including diphenhydramine, simazine, triethylphosphate and acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (A-SMX) were detected in >80% of the sites showing their ubiquitous nature in the study area. Individual compound concentrations were detected up to 24 μg L−1. Concentrations above 1 μg L−1 were also reported for triethylcitrate, N-ethyl-o-toluenesulfonamide, hexazinone, nevirapine, adenosine and carbendazim. While crustaceans were potentially the taxon at risk for acute toxicity (toxic unit (TU) up to 2) with diazinon driving this risk, lower but substantial acute risk (TU 0.5) was observed for algae. Chronic risks were observed in 11 sites for algae (TU > 0.02) and in 5 sites for fish (TU > 0.01). A total of 16 compounds were prioritized based on frequency and extent of the exceedance of thresholds for acute and chronic risks to algae, crustaceans and fish and another 7 compounds prioritized by applying lowest Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNEC). Based on these indicators, this study provides candidate priority compounds for monitoring, assessment and abatement in western Kenya.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Kandie, F.J., Krauss, M., Beckers, L.-M., Massei, R., Fillinger, U., Becker, J., Liess, M., Torto, B., Brack, W. (2020):
Occurrence and risk assessment of organic micropollutants in freshwater systems within the Lake Victoria South Basin, Kenya
Sci. Total Environ. 714 , art. 136748 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136748