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Title (Primary) Floating treatment wetlands as a suitable option for large-scale wastewater treatment
Author Afzal, M.; Arslan, M.; Müller, J.A.; Shabir, G.; Islam, E.; Tahseen, R.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Hashmat, A.J.; Iqbal, S.; Khan, Q.M.
Journal Nature Sustainability
Year 2019
Department UBT
Volume 2
Issue 9
Page From 863
Page To 871
Language englisch
Abstract In many developing countries, there are limited or insufficient wastewater treatment infrastructures. Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be a cost-effective phytoremediation approach to treat various types of wastewater. The buoyancy of the FTWs is due to air-filled rhizomes and entrapment of gas bubbles by the interwoven roots, which can be supported further by rafts. The performance of full-scale systems for treating genuine wastewater is largely unknown because studies so far have been experimental. Here, we installed full-scale FTWs in stabilization ponds receiving sewage (60%) and industrial (40%) wastewater from Faisalabad, Pakistan, and evaluated their treatment performance over a period of three years. The FTWs promoted a substantial improvement of all recorded water quality indicators and a reduction of heavy metal concentrations in the effluent compared to the influent. The maximum removal capacities of the system were 79% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 88% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and 65% of total dissolved solids (TDS). The performance was optimal in the second and third years of operation during which about 60 million m3 per year of wastewater was treated at a cost of US$0.00026 per m3. This study demonstrates that FTWs are an appropriate ecotechnology for the large-scale cleanup of sewage and industrial wastewater.
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Afzal, M., Arslan, M., Müller, J.A., Shabir, G., Islam, E., Tahseen, R., Anwar-ul-Haq, M., Hashmat, A.J., Iqbal, S., Khan, Q.M. (2019):
Floating treatment wetlands as a suitable option for large-scale wastewater treatment
Nat. Sustain. 2 (9), 863 - 871