|Title (Primary)||Occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment of the organic microcontaminants included in the Watch Lists set by EU Decisions 2015/495 and 2018/840 in the groundwater of Spain|
|Author||Jurado, A.; Walther, M.; Díaz-Cruz, S.|
|Journal||Science of the Total Environment|
|Keywords||Emerging organic contaminants; Groundwater; Monitoring; Spain; European Watch Lists|
|Abstract||This paper aims to review the existing occurrence data in Spanish groundwater (GW) for the emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) defined in the surface water Watch Lists of Decisions 2015/495/EU and 2018/840/EU since these contaminants are likely to reach GW bodies because surface waters show close interaction with GW. These two lists include 20 substances: 9 pesticides (5 neonicotinoids, 2 carbamates, 1 oxadiazole and 1 semicarbazone), 6 pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and 5 antibiotics), 3 estrogens, 1 UV filter (2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC) and 1 antioxidant (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT). Most of these substances are usually detected at low ng/L concentration range or not detected in the GW bodies of Spain. However, eventually they are reported at concentrations > 100 ng/L (e.g., imidacloprid, methiocarb, diclofenac, macrolide antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, EHMC and BHT). Consequently, it is required to set up drinking water standards, and/or GW threshold quality values because GW is a valuable water resource worldwide. Overall, GW is less contaminated than other water bodies, such as rivers, suggesting that aquifers possess a natural attenuation capacity and/or are less vulnerable than rivers to contamination. Nevertheless, the natural hydrogeochemical processes that control the fate and transformation of these substances during infiltration and in the aquifer have been barely investigated so far.
The concentrations of the target EOCs are used to calculate hazard quotients (HQs) in the Spanish GW bodies as an estimation of their ecotoxicity and in order to compare somehow their chemical quality with respect to those of surface water. Due to the limited ecotoxicity data for most EOCs, HQs can only be calculated for few substances. The results pointed out the risk posed by the anti-inflammatory diclofenac towards Ceriodaphnia dubia (HQ = 21) and the medium risk associated to the antibiotic erythromycin for Brachionus calyciflorus (HQ = 0.46).
|Persistent UFZ Identifier||https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=21474|
|Jurado, A., Walther, M., Díaz-Cruz, S. (2019):
Occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment of the organic microcontaminants included in the Watch Lists set by EU Decisions 2015/495 and 2018/840 in the groundwater of Spain
Sci. Total Environ. 663 , 285 - 296