Publication Details

Reference Category Journals
DOI / URL link
Title (Primary) Bioanalytical evidence that chemicals in tattoo ink can induce adaptive stress responses
Author Neale, P.A.; Stalter, D.; Tang, J.Y.M.; Escher, B.I.;
Journal Journal of Hazardous Materials
Year 2015
Department ZELLTOX;
Volume 296
Language englisch;
POF III (all) T42;
Keywords Tattoo ink; Bioanalytical tools; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Genotoxicity; Oxidative stress; Cytotoxicity; keywords; water quality assessment , in vitro bioassay; Xenobiotic metabolism; Specific modes of action; Adaptive stress response; Bioanalytical equivalent concentration; human health risk
UFZ wide themes RU3;
Abstract Tattooing is becoming increasingly popular, particularly amongst young people. However, tattoo inks contain a complex mixture of chemical impurities that may pose a long-term risk for human health. As a first step towards the risk assessment of these complex mixtures we propose to assess the toxicological hazard potential of tattoo ink chemicals with cell-based bioassays. Targeted modes of toxic action and cellular endpoints included cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and adaptive stress response pathways. The studied tattoo inks, which were extracted with hexane as a proxy for the bioavailable fraction, caused effects in all bioassays, with the red and yellow tattoo inks having the greatest response, particularly inducing genotoxicity and oxidative stress response endpoints. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tested black tattoo ink at concentrations twice the recommended level. The detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons only explained 0.06% of the oxidative stress response of the black tattoo ink, thus the majority of the effect was caused by unidentified components. The study indicates that currently available tattoo inks contain components that induce adaptive stress response pathways, but to evaluate the risk to human health further work is required to understand the toxicokinetics of tattoo ink chemicals in the body.
ID 19316
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Neale, P.A., Stalter, D., Tang, J.Y.M., Escher, B.I. (2015):
Bioanalytical evidence that chemicals in tattoo ink can induce adaptive stress responses
J. Hazard. Mater. 296 , 192 - 200