intensification and urbanization are important drivers of biodiversity
change in Europe. Different aspects of bee community diversity vary in
their sensitivity to these pressures, as well as independently
influencing ecosystem service provision (pollination). To obtain a more
comprehensive understanding of human impacts on bee diversity across
Europe, we assess multiple, complementary indices of diversity.
One Thousand four hundred and forty six sites across Europe.
collated data on bee occurrence and abundance from the published
literature and supplemented them with the PREDICTS database. Using Rao's
Quadratic Entropy, we assessed how species, functional and phylogenetic
diversity of 1,446 bee communities respond to land-use characteristics
including land-use class, cropland intensity, human population density
and distance to roads. We combined these models with statistically
downscaled estimates of land use in 2005 to estimate and map—at a scale
of approximately 1 km2—the losses in diversity relative to
semi-natural/natural baseline (the predicted diversity of an uninhabited
grid square, consisting only of semi-natural/natural vegetation).
show that—relative to the predicted local diversity in uninhabited
semi-natural/natural habitat—half of all EU27 countries have lost over
10% of their average local species diversity and two-thirds of countries
have lost over 5% of their average local functional and phylogenetic
diversity. All diversity measures were generally lower in pasture and
higher-intensity cropland than in semi-natural/natural vegetation, but
facets of diversity showed less consistent responses to human population
density. These differences have led to marked spatial mismatches in
losses: losses in phylogenetic diversity were in some areas almost 20
percentage points (pp.) more severe than losses in species diversity,
but in other areas losses were almost 40 pp. less severe.
results highlight the importance of exploring multiple measures of
diversity when prioritizing and evaluating conservation actions, as
species-diverse assemblages may be phylogenetically and functionally
impoverished, potentially threatening pollination service provision.