|Title (Primary)||Tetraphasic polar organic chemical integrative sampler for the determination of a wide polarity range organic pollutants in water. The use of performance reference compounds and in-situ calibration|
|Author||Iparraguirre, A.; Prieto, A.; Vallejo, A.; Moeder, M.; Zuloaga, O.; Etxebarria, N.; Paschke, A.|
|Keywords||Polar organic chemical integrative sampler; Performance reference compound; Time weighted average water concentration; In-situ sampling rate|
|UFZ wide themes||RU3;|
|Abstract||In the present work, a homemade polar organic chemical integrative
sampler (POCIS) was studied for the determination of 16 target analytes.
The suitability of the combination of triphasic mixture (used in so
called pesticides-POCIS) and octadecyl-functionalized silica gel (C-18)
as sorbent for POCIS was evaluated for the determination of alkylphenols
(APs), several hormones, bisphenol-A (BPA), synthetic musk fragrances
and herbicides such as trifluralin (Tr) and alachlor (Ala).
With this purpose, POCIS laboratory calibration study, using a continuous-flow calibration system, was carried out in order to determine the uptake behavior and sampling rate (R-s) values for each target analyte. While the most hydrophobic compounds, (synthetic musk fragrances, some APs and Tr), showed poor linearity and low accumulation, a linear accumulation was observed for compounds whose logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient (log K-ow) ranged from 5.3 (4-tert-octylphenol, 4t-OP) to 3.1 (cis-androsterone, ADT). The R-s values obtained ranged from 0.190 L day(-1) (4t-OP) to 0.042 L day(-1) (BPA and equilin, EQ). The addition of C-18 to the commonly used triphasic mixture increased the applicability of the POCIS sampler to compounds slightly more non-polar, such as 4t-OP. As far as we know, this is the first time that a combination of tetraphasic sorbent composed by the commercially available triphasic sorbent (Isolute ENV+polystyrene divinylbenzene and Ambersorb 1500 carbon dispersed on S-X3 Biobeads) and C-18 was evaluated for passive sampling of the target analytes.
The developed POCIS samplers were applied in field experiments from Halle (Germany) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Concerning the calculation of Rs values, the time weighted average (TWA) water concentration C-W(TWA) values were determined considering three different approaches: (i) R, from laboratory calibration (ii) R-s from laboratory calibration corrected with the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs) and (iii) R. derived from field experiments or in-situ calibration. Several deuterated compounds such as, [H-2(3))-17 beta-estradiol ([H-2(3)-E-2), [H-2(4)]-nonylphenol ([H-2(4)]-NP), [H-2(4)]-equilin ([H-2(4)]-EQ),[H-2(3)]-tonalide ([H-2(3)]-AHTN) and [H-2(15)]-musk xylene ([H-2(15)]-MX) were also studied for their applicability as PRCs. Finally, a reasonable agreement between grab sampling and C-W(TWA) was found when results from in-situ calibration were considered, but not when PRCs were used for correction.
|Persistent UFZ Identifier||https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=18532|
|Iparraguirre, A., Prieto, A., Vallejo, A., Moeder, M., Zuloaga, O., Etxebarria, N., Paschke, A. (2017):
Tetraphasic polar organic chemical integrative sampler for the determination of a wide polarity range organic pollutants in water. The use of performance reference compounds and in-situ calibration
Talanta 164 , 314 - 322