Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.1016/j.ufug.2016.11.011
Title (Primary) Neighbourhood greenness and income of occupants in four German areas: GINIplus and LISAplus
Author Markevych, I.; Maier, W.; Fuertes, E.; Lehmann, I.; von Berg, A.; Bauer, C.-P.; Koletzko, S.; Berdel, D.; Sugiri, D.; Standl, M.; Heinrich, J.
Source Titel Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
Year 2017
Department IMMU; STUDIEN
Volume 21
Page From 88
Page To 95
Language englisch
Keywords Greenness; Socioeconomic status; Income; NDVI; Tree cover; Inequality
UFZ wide themes RU3;


We investigated whether families with lower individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) reside in less green neighbourhoods in four areas in Germany.


Data were collected within two German birth cohorts – GINIplus and LISAplus. Net equivalent household income was categorized into study area-specific tertiles and used as a proxy for individual-level SES. Neighbourhood greenness was calculated in 500-m buffers around home addresses as: 1) the mean normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); 2) percent tree cover. Associations between income and neighbourhood greenness were assessed per study area using adjusted linear regression models.


In the Munich and Leipzig areas, families in the low and medium income tertiles resided in neighbourhoods with lower NDVI compared to those in the high income tertile (mean percent change in NDVI: −4.0 (95% confidence interval = −6.7 to −1.3) and −5.5 (−10.9 to −0.2), respectively). In contrast, in the Wesel area, families in the low income tertile resided in neighbourhoods with higher NDVI (2.9 (0.5–5.3)). Only the association in the Munich area was replicated when using tree cover instead of the NDVI.


This study provides suggestive evidence that the presence and direction of associations between greenness and SES is region-specific in Germany. The degree of urbanization did not clarify this heterogeneity completely.

Persistent UFZ Identifier
Markevych, I., Maier, W., Fuertes, E., Lehmann, I., von Berg, A., Bauer, C.-P., Koletzko, S., Berdel, D., Sugiri, D., Standl, M., Heinrich, J. (2017):
Neighbourhood greenness and income of occupants in four German areas: GINIplus and LISAplus
Urban For. Urban Green. 21 , 88 - 95 10.1016/j.ufug.2016.11.011