Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.047
Title (Primary) Sanitation in constructed wetlands: A review on the removal of human pathogens and fecal indicators
Author Wu, S.; Carvalho, P.N.; Müller, J.A.; Manoj, V.R.; Dong, R.
Source Titel Science of the Total Environment
Year 2016
Department UBT
Volume 541
Page From 8
Page To 22
Language englisch
Keywords Constructed wetlands; waterborne pathogens; faecal indicators; bacteria and virus removal mechanisms; sanitation; wastewater treatment performance
UFZ wide themes RU2;
Abstract The global problem of water shortage that results from demands due to population growth, agricultural intensification, and industrial advancements renders the reuse of properly treated wastewater an attractive option. Removal of human pathogens from wastewater is a critical factor especially when the treated water is intended for applications with linkage to human health such as crop irrigation and city landscaping. Constructed Wetlands (CWs) are environmental friendly ecosystems that are applicable not only for chemical pollution control, but also for the reduction of pathogens from wastewater. Yet the knowledge on the fate and removal of pathogens in CWs is still not sufficient, largely due to the complexity of removal mechanisms and influencing factors. This review aims at providing a better understanding of this state-of-the-art technology, which is deemed necessary for defining further investigations targets and design development. Microbial pathogens and, as surrogates thereof, faecal indicator bacteria in CWs mainly come from three sources, namely influent wastewaters, (re)growth within the CWs, and animal activities. The properties of the microbial contamination vary depending on their various sources. The removal of pathogens is  a complex process that is influenced by operational parameters such as hydraulic regime and retention time, vegetation, seasonal fluctuation, and water composition. The most frequent and well-validated removal mechanisms include natural die-off due to starvation or predation, sedimentation and filtration, and adsorption. The concentration of the most commonly investigated faecal indicator bacteria in the effluent was found to be exponentially related to the loading rate. Generally, horizontal subsurface flow CWs have better reduction capacity than free water surface flow CWs, and hybrid wetland systems were found to be the most efficient due to a longer retention time. Further improvement of microbial pathogen/faecal indicator removal in CWs is needed, however, since respective levels in CW effluents are still higher than most of the regulation standards for reuse.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Wu, S., Carvalho, P.N., Müller, J.A., Manoj, V.R., Dong, R. (2016):
Sanitation in constructed wetlands: A review on the removal of human pathogens and fecal indicators
Sci. Total Environ. 541 , 8 - 22 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.047