|Title (Primary)||Mound measurements — quantifying medium-term soil erosion under olive trees in Northern Jordan|
|Author||Kraushaar, S.; Herrmann, N.; Ollesch, G.; Vogel, H.-J.; Siebert, C.|
|Keywords||Erosion; Soil degradation; Olives; Mediterranean; Jordan|
|UFZ wide themes||RU1|
Over the last few decades many quantitative erosion studies have revealed that olive orchard expansion and increased mechanization in southern European countries have led to increased soil erosion under olive trees. Consequently, these studies have suggested different methods of mitigation. In light of the 2014 European trading zone expansion to countries east and south of the Mediterranean, a further intensification of olive plantations is postulated to meet market demands. To attain first medium-term estimates of erosion in Northern Jordan and its driving factors, a new method measuring olive mounds was implemented. Seven fields with clearly erosive structures were chosen throughout the Wadi Al-Arab catchment in Northern Jordan. Topographic measurements were used to reconstruct the historical and recent surface level and calculate the volume eroded since the planting of the trees. A total of 81 bulk density measurements and 14 tree cores allowed the estimation of the soil loss in tons per hectare. The combination of modified land use map and slope information helped to identify similar olive fields with high erosive potential.
Results show that the method provides medium-term quantitative estimates for averaged soil loss consistent with some existing results from similar research areas in the Mediterranean. They clearly indicate the significant potential for erosion in olive orchards with around 95 ± 8 t ha− 1 yr− 1. Tillage practice and water erosion were identified as critical erosion processes, both depending on tillage characteristics, tillage timing, and soil parent material. The investigated fields represent about 19% of the catchment's surface area and are likely to contribute to the measured yearly sediment yield that fills up the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir with sediments.
|Persistent UFZ Identifier||https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=14465|
|Kraushaar, S., Herrmann, N., Ollesch, G., Vogel, H.-J., Siebert, C. (2014):
Mound measurements — quantifying medium-term soil erosion under olive trees in Northern Jordan
Geomorphology 213 , 1 - 12