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Title (Primary) First evidence for toxic defense based on the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism in Daphnia magna
Author Campos, B.; Altenburger, R.; Gómez, C.; Lacorte, S.; Piña, B.; Barata, C.; Luckenbach, T.;
Journal Aquatic Toxicology
Year 2014
Department BIOTOX;
Volume 148
Language englisch;
POF III (all) T42;
Keywords Chemosensitizer; Daphnia magna; environment-tissue barrier; mixture toxicity; multixenobiotic resistance; MXR
UFZ wide themes RU3;
Abstract The water flea Daphnia magna is widely used as test species in ecotoxicological bioassays. So far, there is no information available to which extent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter based multixenobiotc resistance (MXR) counteracts adverse chemical effects in this species. This, however, would be important for assessing, to which extent the bioactive potential of a compound determined with this species depends on this cellular defense. We here present molecular, functional and toxicological studies that provide first evidence for ABC transporter-based MXR in D. magna. We cloned putatively MXR-related, partial abcb1, abcc1/3, abcc4 and abcc5 coding sequences; respective transcripts were constitutively expressed in different D. magna life stages. MXR associated efflux activity was monitored in D. magna using the fluorescent substrate dyes rhodamine 123, rhodamine B and calcein-AM combined with inhibitors of human ABCB1 and/or ABCC transporter activities reversin 205, MK571 and cyclosporin A. With inhibitors present, efflux of dye substrates was reduced in D. magna in a concentration-dependent mode, as indicated by elevated accumulation of the dyes in D. magna tissues. In animals pre-exposed to mercury, pentachlorophenol or dacthal applied as inducers of ABC transporter expression, levels of some ABC transporter transcripts were increased in some cases showing that these genes can be chemically induced. Likewise, pre-exposure of animals to these chemicals decreased dye accumulation in tissue, indicating enhanced MXR transporter activity, likely associated with higher transporter protein levels. Toxicity assays with toxic transporter substrates mitoxantrone and chlorambucil that were applied singly and in combination with inhibitors were performed to study the tolerance role of Abcb1 and Abcc efflux transporters in D. magna. Joint toxicities of about half of the binary combinations of test compounds applied (substrate/inhibitor, substrate/substrate, inhibitor/inhibitor) were greater than joint effects predicted with mixture toxicity models, which can be explained by chemosensitization through MXR efflux transporter interference. Our data indicate the presence of an MXR efflux system in D. magna. It needs to be considered when assessing the bioactive potential of test compounds with this species. Further, chemosensitization may explain joint toxicities of compound mixtures to D. magna that are higher than expected.
ID 14406
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Campos, B., Altenburger, R., Gómez, C., Lacorte, S., Piña, B., Barata, C., Luckenbach, T. (2014):
First evidence for toxic defense based on the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism in Daphnia magna
Aquat. Toxicol. 148 , 139 - 151