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Title (Primary) Localisation and temporal variability of groundwater discharge into the Dead Sea using thermal satellite data
Author Mallast, U.; Siebert, C.; Wagner, B.; Sauter, M.; Gloaguen, R.; Geyer, S.; Merz, R.;
Journal Environmental Earth Sciences
Year 2013
Department CATHYD;
Volume 69
Issue 2
Language englisch;
POF III (all) T34;
UFZ wide themes RU2;

The semi-arid region of the Dead Sea heavily relies on groundwater resources. This dependence is exacerbated by both population growth and agricultural activities and demands a sustainable groundwater management. Yet, information on groundwater discharge as one main component for a sustainable management varies significantly in this area. Moreover, discharge locations, volume and temporal variability are still only partly known. A multi-temporal thermal satellite approach is applied to localise and semi-quantitatively assess groundwater discharge along the entire coastline. The authors use 100 Landsat ETM + band 6.2 data, spanning the years between 2000 and 2011. In the first instance, raw data are transformed to sea surface temperature (SST). To account for groundwater intermittency and to provide a seasonally independent data set ∆T (maximum SST range) per-pixel within biennial periods is calculated subsequently. Groundwater affected areas (GAA) are characterised by ∆T < 8.5 °C. Unaffected areas exhibit values >10 °C. This allows the exact identification of 37 discharge locations (clusters) along the entire Dead Sea coast, which spatially correspond to available in situ discharge observations. Tracking the GAA extents as a direct indicator of groundwater discharge volume over time reveals (1) a temporal variability correspondence between GAA extents and recharge amounts, (2) the reported rigid ratios of discharge volumes between different spring areas not to be valid for all years considering the total discharge, (3) a certain variability in discharge locations as a consequence of the Dead Sea level drop, and finally (4) the assumed flushing effect of old Dead Sea brines from the sedimentary body to have occurred at least during the two series of 2000–2001 and 2010–2011.

ID 13759
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Mallast, U., Siebert, C., Wagner, B., Sauter, M., Gloaguen, R., Geyer, S., Merz, R. (2013):
Localisation and temporal variability of groundwater discharge into the Dead Sea using thermal satellite data
Environ. Earth Sci. 69 (2), 587 - 603