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Title (Primary) Mixture toxicity revisited from a toxicogenomic perspective
Author Altenburger, R.; Scholz, S.; Schmitt-Jansen, M.; Busch, W.; Escher, B.I.;
Journal Environmental Science & Technology
Year 2012
Department BIOTOX;
Volume 46
Issue 5
Language englisch;
Abstract

The advent of new genomic techniques has raised expectations that central questions of mixture toxicology such as for mechanisms of low dose interactions can now be answered. This review provides an overview on experimental studies from the past decade that address diagnostic and/or mechanistic questions regarding the combined effects of chemical mixtures using toxicogenomic techniques. From 2002 to 2011, 41 studies were published with a focus on mixture toxicity assessment. Primarily multiplexed quantification of gene transcripts was performed, though metabolomic and proteomic analysis of joint exposures have also been undertaken. It is now standard to explicitly state criteria for selecting concentrations and provide insight into data transformation and statistical treatment with respect to minimizing sources of undue variability. Bioinformatic analysis of toxicogenomic data, by contrast, is still a field with diverse and rapidly evolving tools. The reported combined effect assessments are discussed in the light of established toxicological dose–response and mixture toxicity models. Receptor-based assays seem to be the most advanced toward establishing quantitative relationships between exposure and biological responses. Often transcriptomic responses are discussed based on the presence or absence of signals, where the interpretation may remain ambiguous due to methodological problems. The majority of mixture studies design their studies to compare the recorded mixture outcome against responses for individual components only. This stands in stark contrast to our existing understanding of joint biological activity at the levels of chemical target interactions and apical combined effects. By joining established mixture effect models with toxicokinetic and -dynamic thinking, we suggest a conceptual framework that may help to overcome the current limitation of providing mainly anecdotal evidence on mixture effects. To achieve this we suggest (i) to design studies to establish quantitative relationships between dose and time dependency of responses and (ii) to adopt mixture toxicity models. Moreover, (iii) utilization of novel bioinformatic tools and (iv) stress response concepts could be productive to translate multiple responses into hypotheses on the relationships between general stress and specific toxicity reactions of organisms.
ID 12166
Persistent UFZ Identifier https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=12166
Altenburger, R., Scholz, S., Schmitt-Jansen, M., Busch, W., Escher, B.I. (2012):
Mixture toxicity revisited from a toxicogenomic perspective
Environ. Sci. Technol. 46 (5), 2508 - 2522