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Title (Primary) The European carbon balance. Part 4: integration of carbon and other trace-gas fluxes
Author Schulze, E.-D.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Schrumpf, M.; Janssens, I.; Thiruchittampalam, B.; Theloke, J.; Saurat, M.; Bringezu, S.; Lelieveld, J.; Lohila, A.; Rebmann, C.; Jung, M.; Bastviken, D.; Abril, G.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Freibauer, A.; Kutsch, W.; Don, A.; Nieschulze, J.; Börner, A.; Gasch, J.H.; Dolman, A.J.;
Journal Global Change Biology
Year 2010
Department CHS;
Volume 16
Issue 5
Language englisch;
Keywords agriculture; carbon cycle; CH4; CO2; Europe; forestry; greenhouse gases; land-use change; N2O; NH3; non-greenhouse gases; NOx;O3

Overviewing the European carbon (C), greenhouse gas (GHG), and non-GHG fluxes, gross primary productivity (GPP) is about 9.3 Pg yr−1, and fossil fuel imports are 1.6 Pg yr−1. GPP is about 1.25% of solar radiation, containing about 360 × 1018 J energy – five times the energy content of annual fossil fuel use. Net primary production (NPP) is 50%, terrestrial net biome productivity, NBP, 3%, and the net GHG balance, NGB, 0.3% of GPP. Human harvest uses 20% of NPP or 10% of GPP, or alternatively 1‰ of solar radiation after accounting for the inherent cost of agriculture and forestry, for production of pesticides and fertilizer, the return of organic fertilizer, and for the C equivalent cost of GHG emissions. C equivalents are defined on a global warming potential with a 100-year time horizon. The equivalent of about 2.4% of the mineral fertilizer input is emitted as N2O. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere are about 40% of total methane, 60% of total NO-N, 70% of total N2O-N, and 95% of total NH3-N emissions of Europe. European soils are a net C sink (114 Tg yr−1), but considering the emissions of GHGs, soils are a source of about 26 Tg CO2 C-equivalent yr−1. Forest, grassland and sediment C sinks are offset by GHG emissions from croplands, peatlands and inland waters. Non-GHGs (NH3, NOx) interact significantly with the GHG and the C cycle through ammonium nitrate aerosols and dry deposition. Wet deposition of nitrogen (N) supports about 50% of forest timber growth. Land use change is regionally important. The absolute flux values total about 50 Tg C yr−1. Nevertheless, for the European trace-gas balance, land-use intensity is more important than land-use change. This study shows that emissions of GHGs and non-GHGs significantly distort the C cycle and eliminate apparent C sinks.

ID 11347
Persistent UFZ Identifier https://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=11347
Schulze, E.-D., Ciais, P., Luyssaert, S., Schrumpf, M., Janssens, I., Thiruchittampalam, B., Theloke, J., Saurat, M., Bringezu, S., Lelieveld, J., Lohila, A., Rebmann, C., Jung, M., Bastviken, D., Abril, G., Grassi, G., Leip, A., Freibauer, A., Kutsch, W., Don, A., Nieschulze, J., Börner, A., Gasch, J.H., Dolman, A.J. (2010):
The European carbon balance. Part 4: integration of carbon and other trace-gas fluxes
Glob. Change Biol. 16 (5), 1451 - 1469