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Titel (primär) Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes
Autor Weiß, M.; Geyer, R.; Günther, T.; Kästner, M.;
Journal / Serie Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Erscheinungsjahr 2004
Department UMB; UBT;
Band/Volume 23
Heft 9
Sprache englisch;
Keywords 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene; Bioremediation; Nonextractable residues; Bound residue stability
Abstract Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil rarely results in complete mineralization of the parent compound. More often, the largest proportion of the TNT carbon is incorporated into the soil organic matrix. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of nonextractable residues from various bioremediation processes of 14C-TNT in soils. The extractable amounts of the residual radioactivity varied between 7 and 33% and thus the nonextractable amount between 93 and 67% (3–15% in fulvic acids, 26–46% in humic acids, and 27–44% in the humin fraction). The residue-containing soils were analyzed for the release of radioactivity after treatment by physical (freeze and thaw, grinding of soil, and steam extraction), chemical (acid rain and addition of metal complexing agent), and biological methods (addition of compost, white rot fungi, radical-generating enzymes, and germination of plants). Freeze and thaw treatment and grinding of the soil did not alter the partitioning of the label significantly. Steam extraction and acid rain extraction increased the water extractability to 11 to 29% and to 51.6% in the native TNT-contaminated soil. The addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) increased the extractability from 7 to 12%. After biological treatment, only slightly increased extractability (<<10%) was observed. No increase of extractable TNT or known metabolites was observed with any of the treatments. Thus, under the treatment conditions applied in this study, the residues formed during microbial transformation of TNT may be biogenic residues with low mobilization potential and low hazardous impact.
ID 4635
dauerhafte UFZ-Verlinkung http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=20939&ufzPublicationIdentifier=4635
Weiß, M., Geyer, R., Günther, T., Kästner, M. (2004):
Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23 (9), 2049 - 2060