||Can multi‐taxa diversity in European beech forest landscapes be increased by combining different management systems?
||Schall, P.; Heinrichs, S.; Ammer, C.; Ayasse, M.; Boch, S.; Buscot, F.; Fischer, M.; Goldmann, K.
; Overmann, J.; Schulze, E.-D.; Sikorski, J.; Weisser, W.W.; Wubet, T.
; Gossner, M.M.
|Journal / Serie
||Journal of Applied Ecology
||BZF; BOOEK; iDiv
||complementarity; even‐aged forests; Forest specialists; gamma‐diversity; landscape composition; resampling; uneven‐aged forests; unmanaged forests
- Forest management greatly influences biodiversity across
spatial scales. At the landscape scale, combining management systems
that create different stand properties might promote biodiversity due to
complementary species assemblages. In European beech forests, nature
conservation and policy advocate a mixture of unmanaged (UNM) forests
and uneven‐aged (UEA) forests managed at fine spatial grain at the
expense of traditionally managed even‐aged shelterwood forests (EA).
Evidence that such a landscape composition enhances forest biodiversity
is still missing.
- We studied the biodiversity (species richness 0D, Shannon diversity 1D, Simpson diversity 2D)
of 14 taxonomic groups from bacteria to vertebrates in “virtual” beech
forest landscapes composed of varying shares of EA, UEA and UNM and
asked how γ‐diversity responds to landscape composition. Groups were
sampled in the largest contiguous beech forest in Germany, where EA and
UEA management date back nearly two centuries, while management was
abandoned 20 to 70 yrs ago (UNM). We used a novel resampling approach
that created all compositional combinations of management systems.
- Pure EA landscapes preserved a maximum of 97.5% γ‐multidiversity (0D, 1D) across all taxa. Pure and mixed UEA/UNM landscapes reduced γ‐multidiversity by up to 12.8% (1D). This effect was consistent for forest specialists (1D: ‐15.3%). We found only weak complementarity among management systems.
- Landscape composition significantly affected γ‐diversity
of 6 to 9 individual taxa, depending on the weighting of species
frequencies with strongest responses for spiders, beetles, vascular
plants and birds. Most showed maximum diversity in pure EA landscapes.
Birds benefited from UNM in EA‐dominated landscapes. Deadwood fungi
showed highest diversity in UNM.
- Synthesis and applications. Our study shows that
combining fine‐grained forest management and management abandonment at
the landscape scale will rather reduce than enhance regional forest
biodiversity. An even‐aged shelterwood management system alone operating
at intermediate spatial scales and providing stands with high
environmental heterogeneity was able to support regional biodiversity.
However, some taxa require certain shares of uneven‐aged and unmanged
forests, emphasizing their general importance. We encourage using the
here presented resampling approach to verify our results in forest
landscapes of different composition and configuration across the
|Schall, P., Heinrichs, S., Ammer, C., Ayasse, M., Boch, S., Buscot, F., Fischer, M., Goldmann, K., Overmann, J., Schulze, E.-D., Sikorski, J., Weisser, W.W., Wubet, T., Gossner, M.M. (2020):
Can multi‐taxa diversity in European beech forest landscapes be increased by combining different management systems?
J. Appl. Ecol. 57 (7), 1363 - 1375