Details zur Publikation
|DOI / URL||Link|
|Titel (primär)||Chapter 9. Case study 5: The effects of increased rape and maize cropping on agricultural biodiversity|
|Titel (sekundär)||Service contract to support follow-up actions to the mid-term review of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 in relation to target 3A – Agriculture. Report to the European Commission|
|Autor||Klenke, R.; Frey, B.; Zarzycka, A.;|
|Herausgeber||Siriwardena, G.; Tucker, G.;|
|POF III (gesamt)||T12;|
|Abstract||Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus), hereafter referred to as rape, and maize (Zea mays) cropping has increased greatly in the last 25 years in Germany (FNR 2016, Statistisches Bundesamt 2010a,b). Although this is a general trend which has been observable for over 70 years driven by various factors (including availability of new varieties adapted to European climates combined with increasing yields, increased milk & meat production leading to increased demands for feed), most of the increase in the last two decades is linked to regional and EU-wide bioenergy support policies (Bentsen et al. 2002, Berndes & Hansson 2007, Bentsen and Felby 2012, Schlegel & Kaphengst 2007, Thrän et al. 2015).
The growing of rape and maize is typically accompanied by a higher input of fertiliser and pesticides, loss of soil organic matter and an increase in soil erosion compared to alternative crop types (e.g. Brandt & Glemnitz 2013, Felten & Emmerling 2011, Gutzler et al. 2015, Roßberg et al. 2002, Table 9-1). During the past 25 years agricultural practices have changed from intensive use of full tillage in the 1990s towards a mainly ploughless minimum tillage combined with an increased application of glyphosate herbicide. Some of the maize can be genetically modified (GMO), although the area used for GMOs in Germany is very small49. Biodiversity impacts may result from habitat loss (e.g. where higher biodiversity value habitats such as semi-natural grasslands or fallow land are converted to maize or rape) and habitat degradation (e.g. as a result of more frequent or damaging cultivation techniques and increases in the use of fertiliser and pesticides). These changes may in turn lead to landscape scale effects, e.g. through reduced habitat diversity and increased fragmentation.
|Klenke, R., Frey, B., Zarzycka, A. (2017):
Chapter 9. Case study 5: The effects of increased rape and maize cropping on agricultural biodiversity
In: Siriwardena, G., Tucker, G. (eds.)
Service contract to support follow-up actions to the mid-term review of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 in relation to target 3A – Agriculture. Report to the European Commission
Institute for European Environmental Policy, London, p. 147 - 183