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Titel (primär) The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on direct and indirect defense metabolites of Plantago lanceolata L.
Autor Fontana, A.; Reichelt, M.; Hempel, S.; Gershenzon, J.; Unsicker, S.B.;
Journal / Serie Journal of Chemical Ecology
Erscheinungsjahr 2009
Department BOOEK;
Band/Volume 35
Heft 7
Sprache englisch;
Keywords Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); Volatile organic compounds (VOC); Iridoid glycosides (IG); Plantago lanceolata; Spodoptera littoralis; Glomus intraradices; Plant secondary metabolites
Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can strongly influence the metabolism of their host plant, but their effect on plant defense mechanisms has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We studied how the principal direct defenses (iridoid glycosides) and indirect defenses (volatile organic compounds) of Plantago lanceolata L. are affected by insect herbivory and mechanical wounding. Volatile compounds were collected and quantified from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal P. lanceolata plants that underwent three different treatments: 1) insect herbivory, 2) mechanical wounding, or 3) no damage. The iridoids aucubin and catalpol were extracted and quantified from the same plants. Emission of terpenoid volatiles was significantly higher after insect herbivory than after the other treatments. However, herbivore-damaged mycorrhizal plants emitted lower amounts of sesquiterpenes, but not monoterpenes, than herbivore-damaged non-mycorrhizal plants. In contrast, mycorrhizal infection increased the emission of the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate in untreated control plants, making it comparable to emission from mechanically wounded or herbivore-damaged plants whether or not they had mycorrhizal associates. Neither mycorrhization nor treatment had any influence on the levels of iridoid glycosides. Thus, mycorrhizal infection did not have any effect on the levels of direct defense compounds measured in P. lanceolata. However, the large decline in herbivore-induced sesquiterpene emission may have important implications for the indirect defense potential of this species
ID 172
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Fontana, A., Reichelt, M., Hempel, S., Gershenzon, J., Unsicker, S.B. (2009):
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on direct and indirect defense metabolites of Plantago lanceolata L.
J. Chem. Ecol. 35 (7), 833 - 843