Details zur Publikation

Kategorie Textpublikation
Referenztyp Buchkapitel
DOI 10.1007/978-1-62703-475-3_11
Titel (primär) Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines
Titel (sekundär) Oxidative stress and nanotechnology: methods and protocols
Autor Kroll, A.; Kühnel, D.; Schirmer, K.
Herausgeber Armstrong, D.; Bharali, D.J.
Quelle Methods in Molecular Biology
Erscheinungsjahr 2013
Department BIOTOX
Band/Volume 1028
Seite von 165
Seite bis 195
Sprache englisch
Keywords Ecotoxicology: Algae; Fish cells; Nanomaterial properties; Nanoparticle characterization; Test design; Exposure scenario; Toxicity; Uptake; Accumulation
UFZ Querschnittsthemen RU3;
Abstract Nanoecotoxicology as a sub-discipline of ecotoxicology aims to identify and predict effects elicited on
ecosystems by nano-sized materials (NM). Two key groups of model organisms in this context are algae
and fi sh. In this chapter, we present considerations for testing NM with respect to their impact on unicellular algae and cell lines derived from various organs of fish.
Based on currently available literature on NM effects in unicellular algae and fi sh cell lines, and our
own experience, we provide guidance on test design, including principle test considerations, materials, NM
presentation to cells, exposure, bioavailability, and effect assessment. Assessment needs to be based on a meaningful choice of exposure scenario(s) related to the research question. As a fi rst step, one needs to address whether effects of NMs are to be investigated under environmentally relevant or probable conditions, which may include processes such as agglomeration, or whether NM effects from mono-dispersed particles are of interest, which may require special steps to ensure stable NM suspension. Moreover, whether effects on cells are to be studied in the short- or long-term is important with regard to experimental design. Preparation of NM suspensions, which can be done in aqueous media different from the exposure medium, is addressed with regard to energy input, sterility (as required for algae and fi sh cell exposure) and particle purity. Specifi ed for the two model systems, algae and fi sh cell lines, availability and choice of culture media are presented and discussed with regard to impact on NM behavior. Light, temperature, and agitation, which are variables during exposure, are discussed. We further provide guidance on the characterization of the NM in the chosen aqueous exposure media regarding size, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility. The state of NM in exposure media is decisive for their bioavailability and therefore for potential particle effects. Therefore, we present ways of deriving a mass balance and quantitative/qualitative information on the uptake and distribution of NM in cells.
As NM have a high surface-to-volume ratio and possess specifi c physical-chemical properties, which
make them prone to interfere with various compounds and certain types of toxicity tests, potential interferences and appropriate controls are introduced. Furthermore, different types of dose metrics, which is still a strongly debated issue in nanotoxicology, are highlighted. We also consider laboratory safety regarding NM handling and disposal.
dauerhafte UFZ-Verlinkung
Kroll, A., Kühnel, D., Schirmer, K. (2013):
Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines
In: Armstrong, D., Bharali, D.J. (eds.)
Oxidative stress and nanotechnology: methods and protocols
Methods in Molecular Biology 1028
Springer Nature, p. 165 - 195 10.1007/978-1-62703-475-3_11