Publication Details

Category Text Publication
Reference Category Journals
DOI 10.4209/aaqr.2019.09.0444
Licence creative commons licence
Title (Primary) Particle mass concentrations and number size distributions in 40 homes in Germany: Indoor-to-outdoor relationships, diurnal and seasonal variation
Author Zhao, J.; Birmili, W.; Wehner, B.; Daniels, A.; Weinhold, K.; Wang, L.; Merkel, M.; Kecorius, S.; Tuch, T.; Franck, U.; Hussein, T.; Wiedensohler, A.
Source Titel Aerosol and Air Quality Research
Year 2020
Department IMMU
Volume 20
Issue 3
Page From 576
Page To 589
Language englisch
Keywords Indoor particle exposure; Indoor particle loss; Indoor source; I/O ratio; Penetration
Abstract Few studies investigated residential particle concentration levels with a full picture of aerosol particles from 10 nm to 10 µm size range with size-resolved information, and none was performed in central Europe in the long-term in multiple homes. To capture representative diurnal and seasonal patterns of exposure to particles, and investigate the driving factors to their variations, measurements were performed in 40 homes for around two weeks each in Leipzig and Berlin, Germany. These over 500 days’ measurements combined PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, particle number concentration and size distribution (PNC and PNSD, 10–800 nm), CO2 concentration, and residential activities diary into a unique dataset. Natural ventilation was dominated, the mean ventilation rate calculated from CO2 measurements was 0.2 h–1 and 3.7 h–1 with closed and opened windows, respectively. The main findings of this study showed that, the residents in German homes were exposed to a significantly higher mass concentration of coarse particles than outdoors, thus indoor exposure to coarse particles cannot be described by outdoors. The median indoor PNC diurnal cycles were generally lower than outdoors (median I/O ratio 0.69). However, indoor exposure to particles was different in the cold and warm season. In the warm season, due to longer opening window periods, indoor sources’ contribution was weakened, which also resulted in the indoor PNC and PNSD being very similar to the outdoors. In the cold season, indoor sources caused strong peaks of indoor PNC that exceeded outdoors, along with the relatively low penetration factor - 0.5 for all size ranges, and indoor particle losses, which was particularly effective in reducing the ultrafine PNC, resulting in a different particle exposure load than outdoors. This study provides a detailed understanding of residential particle exposure in multiple homes, facilitating future studies to assess health effects in residential environments.
Persistent UFZ Identifier
Zhao, J., Birmili, W., Wehner, B., Daniels, A., Weinhold, K., Wang, L., Merkel, M., Kecorius, S., Tuch, T., Franck, U., Hussein, T., Wiedensohler, A. (2020):
Particle mass concentrations and number size distributions in 40 homes in Germany: Indoor-to-outdoor relationships, diurnal and seasonal variation
Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20 (3), 576 - 589 10.4209/aaqr.2019.09.0444