Conventional Farming

The land use system "conventional farming" is characterized by a typical regional crop rotation consisting of winter rape, winter wheat and winter barley. Mineral fertilizers and pesticides are applied as usual in conventional agricultural practice.

2012-2013: Oat (common crop on all subplots to homogenize soil conditions)

2013-2014: Winter rape

2014-2015: Winter wheat

2015-2016: Winter barley


Organic Farming

The crop rotation for the land use system "Organic Farming" is intended to help to maintain soil fertility, to minimize measures of pest and weed control, and to provide an environmental friendly management of agro-ecosystems. This land use system is further characterized by mechanical weed control, organic fertilization, non-stained seeds and a restricted use of pesticides.

2012-2013: Oat (common crop on all subplots to homogenize soil conditions)

2013-2014: Horse bean

2014-2015: Winter wheat

2015-2016: Winter barley


Intensively Managed Meadow

The grasland type "intensively managed meadow" is a conventional used mixture of forage grasses and characterized by moderate fertilization and frequent mowing (3-4 times per year).

Sown species:

10% Lolium perenne (early-season cultivar)

10% Lolium perenne (mid-season cultivar)

50% "Festulolium"

20% Dactylis glomerata

10% Poa pratensis


Extensively Managed Meadow

For this grasland type more than 50 plant species which are regionally typical for graslands were sown. For each species, seeds were sampled from different local popualtions to reflect to local gene pool and to introduce genetic variability. The meafdows are used by moderate mowing (2-3 times per year).

Sown species:


Lathyrus pratensis, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago falcata, Medicago lupulina, Securigera varia, Trifolium campestre. Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Vicia cracca, Vicia sepium


Anthoxanthum odoratum, Arrhenatherum elatius, Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus erectus, Bromus hordaceus, Cynosurus cristatus, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca pratensis, Festuca rubra, Festuca rupicola, Helictotrichon pratensis, Phleum pratense, Poa angustifolia, Trisetun flavescens

Non-leguminous dicots

Achillea millefolium, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium vineale, Campanula rapunculoides, Centaurea jacea, Crepis biennis, Daucus carota, Dianthus carthusianorum, Falcaria vulgaris, Filipendula vulgaris, Galium album, Galium verum, Geranium pratense, Knautia arvensis, Leucanthemum vulgare, Linaria vulgaris, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Pastinaca sativa, Pimpinella saxifraga, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, Prunella vulgaris, Ranunculus acris, Salvia pratensis, Scabiosa ochroleuca, Silene latifolia, Stachys erecta, Tragopogon pratensis, Veronica chamaedrys


Extensively managed pasture

Species pool is the same like in the extensively managed meadow (see above). The grasland is managed by 2-3 grazing periods per year. For this, a group of 20 sheep is allowed to graze on each plot for 24 hours.