Post-2020 CBD

Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)


NeFo berichtet regelmäßig über den aktuellen Stand der Verhandlungen.


 Hintergrund

Das Übereinkommen über die biologische Vielfalt (Convention on Biological Diversity – CBD) hatte im Jahr 2010 ein strategisches Rahmenwerk verabschiedet, das wichtige Ursachen des Biodiversitätsverlusts adressiert und Wege aufzeigt, diese Ursachen zu bekämpfen (Strateggic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020). Die enthaltenen Aichi-Biodiversitätsziele sind die bisher wichtigsten globalen Vorgaben für die Erhaltung der Biodiversität. Zu diesen Zielen und zu ihrer nationalen Umsetzung haben sich damals 194 Vertragsstaaten bekannt. Der aktuell gültige Strategische Plan der CBD lief Ende 2020 aus, und die meisten der 20 Aichi-Ziele wurden bis zum Fristende weit verfehlt. Dies zeigen sowohl der 2019 veröffentlichte Globale Bericht des Weltbiodiversitätsrats IPBES als auch der globale Biodiversitätsausblicks (GBO-5) der CBD. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird aktuell intensiv über die Ausgestaltung eines globalen Rahmens für die biologische Vielfalt für die Zeit nach 2020 (Global Biodiversity Framework – GBF) diskutiert.


CBD Prozess A
Am 12. Juli 2021 legte das CBD-Sekretariat einen ersten detaillierten Entwurf für neue internationale Naturschutzziele vor (First Draft of Post-2020 GBF, siehe auch entsprechende CBD-Pressemitteilung).

Ein finaler Beschluss zum GBF wird durch die nächste CBD-Vertragsstaatenkonferenz (CBD COP-15) im Herbst 2021 in Kunming (China) erwartet. Ausführliche Informationen dazu auf der offiziellen Seite der CBD: https://www.cbd.int/. Updates findet man auch in den CBD-Bekanntmachungen.

 Der erste Enwurf: „First Draft“

21 Action targets_CBD_First Draft

Im Juli 2021 wurde ein erster detaillierter Entwurf für ein globales post-2020 Biodiveristäts-Rahmenwerk vorgelegt (First Draft). Demnach ist dieses Rahmenwerk aus mehreren Komponenten aufgebaut, und zwar aus einer Vision für 2050 und einer Mission für 2030, vier übergeordneten Zielstellungen ('Goals') mit insgesamt zehn Meilensteinen) sowie 21 konkreten Aktionszielen ('Action Targets').


21 Action Targets

  • Reducing threats to biodiversity

Target 1
Ensure that all land and sea areas globally are under integrated biodiversity-inclusive spatial planning addressing land- and sea-use change, retaining existing intact and wilderness areas.

Target 2
Ensure that at least 20 per cent of degraded freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems are under restoration, ensuring connectivity among them and focusing on priority ecosystems.

Target 3
Ensure that at least 30 per cent globally of land areas and of sea areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and its contributions to people, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

Target 4
Ensure active management actions to enable the recovery and conservation of species and the genetic diversity of wild and domesticated species, including through ex situ conservation, and effectively manage human-wildlife interactions to avoid or reduce human-wildlife conflict.

Target 5
Ensure that the harvesting, trade and use of wild species is sustainable, legal, and safe for human health.

Target 6
Manage pathways for the introduction of invasive alien species, preventing, or reducing their rate of introduction and establishment by at least 50 per cent, and control or eradicate invasive alien species to eliminate or reduce their impacts, focusing on priority species and priority sites.

Target 7
Reduce pollution from all sources to levels that are not harmful to biodiversity and ecosystem functions and human health, including by reducing nutrients lost to the environment by at least half, and pesticides by at least two thirds and eliminating the discharge of plastic waste.

Target 8
Minimize the impact of climate change on biodiversity, contribute to mitigation and adaptation through ecosystem-based approaches, contributing at least 10 GtCO2e per year to global mitigation efforts, and ensure that all mitigation and adaptation efforts avoid negative impacts on biodiversity.


  • Meeting people’s needs through sustainable use and benefit-sharing

Target 9
Ensure benefits, including nutrition, food security, medicines, and livelihoods for people especially for the most vulnerable through sustainable management of wild terrestrial, freshwater and marine species and protecting customary sustainable use by indigenous peoples and local communities.

Target 10
Ensure all areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, in particular through the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, increasing the productivity and resilience of these production systems.

Target 11
Maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to regulation of air quality, quality and quantity of water, and protection from hazards and extreme events for all people.

Target 12
Increase the area of, access to, and benefits from green and blue spaces, for human health and well-being in urban areas and other densely populated areas.

Target 13
Implement measures at global level and in all countries to facilitate access to genetic resources and to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, and as relevant, of associated traditional knowledge, including through mutually agreed terms and prior and informed consent.


  • Tools and solutions for implementation and mainstreaming

Target 14
Fully integrate biodiversity values into policies, regulations, planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies, accounts, and assessments of environmental impacts at all levels of government and across all sectors of the economy, ensuring that all activities and financial flows are aligned with biodiversity values.

Target 15
All businesses (public and private, large, medium and small) assess and report on their dependencies and impacts on biodiversity, from local to global, and progressively reduce negative impacts, by at least half and increase positive impacts, reducing biodiversity-related risks to businesses and moving towards the full sustainability of extraction and production practices, sourcing and supply chains, and use and disposal.

Target 16
Ensure that people are encouraged and enabled to make responsible choices and have access to relevant information and alternatives, taking into account cultural preferences, to reduce by at least half the waste and, where relevant the overconsumption, of food and other materials.

Target 17
Establish, strengthen capacity for, and implement measures in all countries to prevent, manage or control potential adverse impacts of biotechnology on biodiversity and human health, reducing the risk of these impacts.

Target 18

Redirect, repurpose, reform or eliminate incentives harmful for biodiversity, in a just and equitable way, reducing them by at least US$ 500 billion per year, including all of the most harmful subsidies, and ensure
that incentives, including public and private economic and regulatory incentives, are either positive or neutral for biodiversity.

Target 19
Increase financial resources from all sources to at least US$ 200 billion per year, including new, additional and effective financial resources, increasing by at least US$ 10 billion per year international financial flows to developing countries, leveraging private finance, and increasing domestic resource mobilization, taking into account national biodiversity finance planning, and strengthen capacity-building and technology transfer and scientific cooperation, to meet the needs for implementation, commensurate with the ambition of the goals and targets of the framework.

Target 20
Ensure that relevant knowledge, including the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities with their free, prior, and informed consent, guides decision-making for the effective management of biodiversity, enabling monitoring, and by promoting awareness, education and research.

Target 21
Ensure equitable and effective participation in decision-making related to biodiversity by indigenous peoples and local communities, and respect their rights over lands, territories and resources, as well as by women and girls, and youth.

 Der Vor-Enwurf: „Zero Draft“

Seit Januar 2020 hatte ein Vor-Entwurf für das globale post-2020 Biodiveristäts-Rahmenwerk vorgelegen (Zero Draft). Darin blieb die Vision der CBD eine Welt, in der wir in Harmonie mit der Natur leben und in der bis zum Jahr 2050 die biologische Vielfalt geschätzt, erhalten, wiederhergestellt und sinnvoll genutzt wird, um die Ökosystemleistungen zu erhalten, einen gesunden Planeten zu bewahren und Menschen Vorteile zu bringen.

Insbesondere die Europäische Union und viele NGOs kritisierten den "Zero Draft" als nicht ausreichend ambitioniert.

 Die Konvention über die biologische Vielfalt (CBD)

Die Konvention über die biologische Vielfalt (United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, CBD) wurde im Jahr 1992 in Rio de Janeiro von mehr als 150 Staaten unterzeichnet und trat am 23. Dezember 1993 in Kraft. Sie gilt als wichtigste globale Grundlage für die Bewahrung der Biodiversität auf der Erde. In Artikel 1 der Konvention werden drei Ziele formuliert: der Erhalt der biologischen Vielfalt, die nachhaltige Nutzung ihrer Bestandteile sowie die ausgewogene und gerechte Aufteilung der sich aus der Nutzung der genetischen Ressourcen ergebenden Vorteile.
Das Sekretariat der CBD befindet sich in Montreal. Gegenwärtig hat die CBD 196 Mitgliedstaaten.