The CitePro module “Water sample preparation with solid-phase extraction” is used for the extraction of organic compounds from liquid environmental samples for the high throughput biological analysis in modules #1 to #4 and chemical analysis in modules #9 and/or #10. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is an established and widely used extraction method to enrich organic extracts of organic compounds dissolved in water samples. A vast number of solid phases (sorbents) with a broad range of single- or mixed-mode properties are commercially available. Thus, SPE is easily customizable to achieve the analytical goals.
After the manual filtration step, automated SPE allows unattended conditioning of the cartridges, extraction of the water sample and elution of the cartridges of several water samples in series. The automation enhances precision and repeatability of the extraction to minimize the probability of systematic and occasional errors and thus facilitates comparability between samples.
Extraction and enrichment of dissolved organic compounds in water samples.
Beckers, L.-M., Busch, W., Krauss, M., Schulze, T. and Brack, W. (2018) Characterization and risk assessment of seasonal and weather dynamics in organic pollutant mixtures from discharge of a separate sewer system. Water Research 135, 122-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.002
Neale, P.A., Brack, W., Ait-Aissa, S., Busch, W., Hollender, J., Krauss, M., Maillot-Marechal, E., Munz, N., Schlichting, R., Schulze, T., Vogler, B. and Escher, B.I.I. (2018) Solid-phase extraction as sample preparation of water samples for cell-based and other in vitro bioassays. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 20, 493-504. DOI: 10.1039/C7EM00555E
Schulze, T., Ahel, M., Ahlheim, J., Aït-Aïssa, S., Brion, F., Di Paolo, C., Froment, J., Hidasi, A.O., Hollender, J., Hollert, H., Hu, M., Kloß, A., Koprivica, S., Krauss, M., Muz, M., Oswald, P., Petre, M., Schollée, J.E., Seiler, T.-B., Shao, Y., Slobodnik, J., Sonavane, M., Suter, M.J.F., Tollefsen, K.E., Tousova, Z., Walz, K.-H. and Brack, W. (2017) Assessment of a novel device for onsite integrative large-volume solid phase extraction of water samples to enable a comprehensive chemical and effect-based analysis. Science of the Total Environment 581-582, 350-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.140
Välitalo, P., Massei, R., Heiskanen, I., Behnisch, P., Brack, W., Tindall, A.J., Du Pasquier, D., Küster, E., Mikola, A., Schulze, T. and Sillanpää, M. (2017) Effect-based assessment of toxicity removal during wastewater treatment. Water Research 126(Supplement C), 153-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.09.01