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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Arum maculatum L. s. str. Araceae » Gefleckter Aronstab
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Arum maculatum L. accepted
Arum pyrenaeum Dufour Synonym
Arum immaculatum (Rchb.) Schott Synonym
Arum maculatum var. immaculatum Rchb. Synonym
Arum maculatum var. maculatum Synonym
Arum vulgare Lam. Synonym
<Arum maculatum agg. accepted
<Arum maculatum L., s. l. Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 14
Chromosome number 2n 84
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 6 (hexaploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 14
Chromosome number 2n 56
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race True
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 14
Chromosome number 2n 28
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level  
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 21.8
Chromosome number 56
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 274:227-274
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBABBAAAA
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form G (Geophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation sk (Shoot tuber)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs sk (Shoot tuber)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses sk (Shoot tuber)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes g (Rosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Sowter, F.A. 1949: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Arum; Arum maculatum L.. Journal of Ecology 37:207-219
Prime, C.T. 1955: Vegetative reproduction in Arum maculatum. Watsonia 3:175-178
Irmisch, T. 1874: Beiträge zur vergleichenden Morphologie der Pflanzen. 5. Ueber Aroideen. Abh. Naturforsch. Ges. Halle 13:159-205
Irmisch, T. 1850: Zur Morphologie der monokotylischen Knollen- und Zwiebelgewächse. Berlin
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence v (spring green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy y (hygromorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form norm (simple)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 6
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 5 (Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum-Phase)
Phenological season: end of mid spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Sowter, F.A. 1949: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Arum; Arum maculatum L.. Journal of Ecology 37:207-219
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny mo (monoecious)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Sowter, F.A. 1949: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Arum; Arum maculatum L.. Journal of Ecology 37:207-219
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy g3 (pronounced protogynous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system XF (facultative allogamous)
Reference Echchgadda, G., Triest, L. 1999: Genetic diversity in Arum maculatum from two urban forests. Belgian Journal of Botany 132:95-103
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 2 (little)
Floral rewards 4 (deceit)
Reference Proctor, M.C.F., Yeo, P., Lack, A. 1996: The natural history of pollination. HarperCollins Publishers, London
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour light green
Basic flower colour gr (green)
Reference Haeupler, H., Muer, T. 2000: Bildatlas der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. Ulmer, Stuttgart
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Dke (trap flowers)
Typical pollinators: very small dipteres
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 10.1 (vessel trap flowers)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Be (berry)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type F (fruit)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 183.5
Weight (mean) [mg] 268.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 355.7
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 31.9
Weight (mean) [mg] 41.0
Weight (maximum) [mg] 45.4
Sizes »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 4.0
Length (mean) [mm] 7.6
Length (maximum) [mm] 10.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 4.0
Width (mean) [mm] 6.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 8.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 4.0
Height (mean) [mm] 6.0
Height (maximum) [mm] 7.0
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 3.0
Length (mean) [mm] 4.5
Length (maximum) [mm] 6.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 3.0
Width (mean) [mm] 4.1
Width (maximum) [mm] 5.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 3.0
Height (mean) [mm] 3.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 4.0
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Briemle, G. 1996: Farbatlas Kräuter und Gräser. Ulmer, Stuttgart (Gattung)
Sowter, F.A. 1949: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Arum; Arum maculatum L.. Journal of Ecology 37:207-219 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 2
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 2 (moderately urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat L5.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Alno-Ulmion p.p.
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.1 (null)
Alliance: Fagion sylvaticae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Carpinion betuli
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.3 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 10.2 (Mesophilous, summer-green deciduous forests)
Class: Carpino-Fagetea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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