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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. s. str. Asteraceae » Magerwiesen-Margerite
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. accepted
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Synonym
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum subsp. triviale Gaudin Synonym
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., (s. l.) p. p. Synonym
Leucanthemum praecox (Horvatic) Horvatic Synonym
Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. praecox Horvatic Synonym
Leucanthemum vulgare subsp. triviale , auct. p. p., non (Gaudin) Briquet Synonym
<Leucanthemum vulgare agg. accepted
<Leucanthemum vulgare - Gruppe Synonym
<Chrysanthemum leucanthemum - Gruppe Synonym
<Leucanthemum vulgare Lam., s. l. Synonym
<Chrysanthemum leucanthemum 'Sammelart' Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 9
Chromosome number 2n 18
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type D (diploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Albers, F. 1998: Chromosomenzahlen der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. In: Wisskirchen, R., Haeupler, H. (Hrsg.) Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands, S. 562-616, Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 9
Chromosome number 2n 36
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Albers, F. 1998: Chromosomenzahlen der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. In: Wisskirchen, R., Haeupler, H. (Hrsg.) Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands, S. 562-616, Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 9
Chromosome number 2n 54
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 6 (hexaploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Albers, F. 1998: Chromosomenzahlen der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. In: Wisskirchen, R., Haeupler, H. (Hrsg.) Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands, S. 562-616, Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 9
Chromosome number 2n 72
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 8 (octoploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Albers, F. 1998: Chromosomenzahlen der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. In: Wisskirchen, R., Haeupler, H. (Hrsg.) Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands, S. 562-616, Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 19.0
Chromosome number 36
Quality chromosome number missing in original source; the most common number was added [f]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London
DNA content (pg/2C) 21.3
Chromosome number 36
Quality chromosome number missing in original source; the most common number was added [f]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
DNA content (pg/2C) 25.4
Chromosome number 36
Quality chromosome number missing in original source; the most common number was added [f]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1991: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 334:309-345
DNA content (pg/2C) 11.5
Chromosome number 36
Quality chromosome number missing in original source; the most common number was added [f]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 274:227-274
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABABBABBABABBABBBBABA
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation ar (Runner-like rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs ar (Runner-like rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses ar (Runner-like rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Frey, W., Hensen, I., Kürschner, H. 1995: Drabo-Hieracietum humilis (Habichtskraut-Felsspaltengesellschaft) - Lebensstrategien von Felsspaltenbesiedlern. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 117:249-272
Hensen, I. 1997: Life strategies of xerothermic grasslands - mechanisms of reproduction and colonization within Stipetum capillatae s.l. and Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati. Feddes Repertorium 108:425-452
Perttula, U. 1941: Untersuchungen über die generative und vegetative Vermehrung der Blütenpflanzen in der Wald-Hainwiesen- und Hainfelsen-Vegetation. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennici, Ser. A, 58:1-388
Golubev, V.N. 1957: Materialy k ekologo-morfologiceskoj i geneticeskoj charakteristikje zhizjennych form travjanistych rastenij. Botaniceskij Zhurnal 42:1055-1072
Kutschera, L., Lichtenegger, E. 1992: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Grünlandpflanzen. Bd. 2 Pteridophyta und Dicotyledonae (Magnoliopsida). Teil I Morphologie, Anatomie, Ökologie, Verbreitung, Soziologie, Wirtschaft. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
Jäger, E.J. 1957: Über Wuchsform, Wuchsrhythmus und Verbreitung einheimischer Wiesenasteraceen. Dipl.-Arb. Univ. Halle.
Howarth, S.E., Williams, J.T. 1968: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.. Journal of Ecology 56:585-595
Gustafsson, A. 1948: Polyploidy, life-form and vegetative reproduction. Hereditas 34:1-22
Linkola, K. 1935: Über die Dauer und Jahresklassenentwicklung des Jugendstadiums bei einigen Wiesenstauden. Acta Forest. Fenn. 42:1-56
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence i (persistent green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy s (scleromorphic)
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form norm (simple)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 6
End of flowering (months) 10
Duration of flowering (months) 5
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 0 (not available)
Phenological season: not available
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Marchant, C.J., Goodman, P.J. 1969: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Spartina alterniflora Loisel.. Journal of Ecology 57:291-295
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Howarth, S.E., Williams, J.T. 1968: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.. Journal of Ecology 56:585-595
Dicliny »
Dicliny gm (gynomonoecious)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a2 (protandrous)
Reference Howarth, S.E., Williams, J.T. 1968: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.. Journal of Ecology 56:585-595
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Villard, M. 1970: Contribution à l¿étude cytotaxinomique et cytogénétique du genre Leucanthemum Adans. em. Briq. et Cav.. Berichte der Schweizerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 80:96-187
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance at failure of outcrossing [7]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector sn (slug)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance possible [5]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system AFXF (mixed mating)
Reference Villard, M. 1970: Contribution à l¿étude cytotaxinomique et cytogénétique du genre Leucanthemum Adans. em. Briq. et Cav.. Berichte der Schweizerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 80:96-187
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour white and yellow
Basic flower colour w (white)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER B` (flower associations with totally hidden nectar)
Typical pollinators: bees, bumble bees, wasps, bombylides, syrphids
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 7.2c (flower heads, Asteraceae, ray and disk flowers)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Nu (nut)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type F (fruit)
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type A1 (disk fruit or central fruit)
Germinule type F (fruit)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Heteromorphic type A2 (peripheral fruit)
Germinule type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages sometimes [2]
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A1 (disk fruit or central fruit)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.4
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A1 (disk fruit or central fruit)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.4
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A2 (peripheral fruit)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.4
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A2 (peripheral fruit)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.4
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Sizes »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A1 (disk fruit or central fruit)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Length (mean) [mm] 2.5
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Width (mean) [mm] 0.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A1 (disk fruit or central fruit)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Length (mean) [mm] 2.5
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.7
Width (mean) [mm] 0.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A2 (peripheral fruit)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Length (mean) [mm] 2.4
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 0.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type A2 (peripheral fruit)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Length (mean) [mm] 2.4
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 0.8
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.0
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
special references:
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Howarth, S.E., Williams, J.T. 1968: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.. Journal of Ecology 56:585-595 (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Kynclova, M. 1970: Comperative morphology of achenes of the Tribe Anthemideae Cass. (family Asteraceae) and ist taxonomic significance. Preslia (Praha) 42:35-53 (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type c (competitors)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 6 (between 5 and 7 (moderately tolerant to well tolerant to mowing))
Grazing tolerance 3 (sensitive to grazing)
Trampling tolerance 4 (between 3 and 5 (sensitive to moderately tolerant to trampling))
Foraging value 3 (little forage value)
Foraging value for deer  
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 2 (moderately urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T6.2.2.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Bromion erecti
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation (auch halbruderal)
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


Display of complete information for the selected species. Only traits available for the selected species are displayed.