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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Bromus hordeaceus L. Poaceae » Weiche Trespe
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Bromus hordeaceus L. accepted
Bromus mollis L. Synonym
Bromus affinis Dumort. Synonym
Bromus hordeaceus subsp. mollis (L.) Hyl. Synonym
<Bromus hordeaceus agg. accepted
<Bromus hordeaceus 'Sammelart' Synonym
<Bromus hordeaceus - Gruppe Synonym
>Bromus hordeaceus subsp. hordeaceus accepted
>Bromus hordeaceus subsp. divaricatus (Bonnier & Layens) Kerguélen accepted
>Bromus molliformis J. Lloyd Synonym
>Bromus divaricatus J. Lloyd, non Rohde 1810, nom. illeg. Synonym
>Bromus intermedius subsp. divaricatus Bonnier & Layens Basionym
>Bromus hordeaceus subsp. molliformis (Lloyd) Maire & Weiller Synonym
>Bromus hordeaceus subsp. pseudothominii (P. M. Smith) H. Scholz accepted
>Bromus x pseudothominii P. M. Smith Basionym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin a (anecophytic)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 1 (Europe)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
Degree of naturalization »
Maximum degree of naturalization AG (agriophyte)
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 7
Chromosome number 2n 28
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 22.1
Chromosome number 28
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Leitch, I.J. 1997: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms - 583 new estimates. Annals of Botany 80:169-196
DNA content (pg/2C) 18.4
Chromosome number 28
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 274:227-274
DNA content (pg/2C) 19.7
Chromosome number 28
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 274:227-274
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBABBBBAAABBAAAABABBBBBAAC
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life form T (Therophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span a (annual)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Perttula, U. 1941: Untersuchungen über die generative und vegetative Vermehrung der Blütenpflanzen in der Wald-Hainwiesen- und Hainfelsen-Vegetation. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennici, Ser. A, 58:1-388
Mühlberg, H. 1967: Die Wuchstypen mitteleuropäischer Poaceen. Hercynia N. F. 4:11-50
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence w (overwintering green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form gras (grass-like)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 8
Duration of flowering (months) 4
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 7 (Ligustrum-Stachys sylvatica-Phase)
Phenological season: end of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction s (by seed/by spore)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Connor, H.E. 1979: Breeding system in the grasses: a survey. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17:547-574
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Beddows, A.R. 1931: Seed setting and flowering in various grasses. Bulletin of the Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Series H 12:5-99
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector wi (wind)
Pollen vector group: ab (abiotische Bestäubung)
Abundance possible [5]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Smith, D.C. 1944: Pollination and seed formation in grasses. Journal of Agricultural Research 68:79-95
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector kl (cleistogamy)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system AO (autogamous)
Reference Fryxell, P.M. 1957: Modes of reproduction of higher plants. The Botanical Review 23:135-233
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER W (wind flowers)
Typical pollinators: -
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 0 (not applicable)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Nu (nut)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type F (fruit)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages sometimes [2]
Development of additional appendages  
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages sometimes [2]
Development of elongated appendages always [1]
Development of additional appendages always [1]
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 2.8
Weight (mean) [mg] 2.8
Weight (maximum) [mg] 2.9
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 3.0
Weight (mean) [mg] 3.5
Weight (maximum) [mg] 4.0
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 3.0
Weight (mean) [mg] 3.5
Weight (maximum) [mg] 4.0
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 5.5
Length (mean) [mm] 6.1
Length (maximum) [mm] 7.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.1
Width (mean) [mm] 1.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.6
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.4
Height (mean) [mm] 0.4
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.5
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 11.0
Length (mean) [mm] 12.4
Length (maximum) [mm] 14.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.6
Width (mean) [mm] 2.4
Width (maximum) [mm] 3.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 1.3
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.8
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 11.0
Length (mean) [mm] 12.4
Length (maximum) [mm] 14.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.6
Width (mean) [mm] 2.4
Width (maximum) [mm] 3.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 1.3
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.8
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint True
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 6.4
Length (mean) [mm] 7.9
Length (maximum) [mm] 11.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.6
Width (mean) [mm] 2.4
Width (maximum) [mm] 3.5
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 1.3
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.8
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Müller-Schneider, P. 1986: Verbreitungsbiologie der Blütenpflanzen Graubündens. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes der ETH, Stiftung Rübel, Zürich 85:1-261 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Hensen, I., Müller, C. 1997: Experimental and structural investigations of anemochorous dispersal. Plant Ecology 133:169-180 (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Frey, W., Hauser, A. 1996: Onopordetum acanthii (Eselsdistel-Gesellschaft) im mittleren und unteren Unstruttal - Lebensstrategien in einer wärmeliebenden Ruderalgesellschaft. Hausknechtia, Beiheft 6:1-84 (Gattung)
Häfliger, T.J., Scholz, H. 1981: Grass weeds. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basel (Gattung)
Kaltofen, H., Schrader, A. 1991: Gräser. Biologie - Bestimmung - Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung. DVL, Berlin (Gattung)
Kowal, T., Rudnicka-Sternowa, W. 1969: Fruit morphology and anatomy of the Bromus L. species of Poland. Monographiae Botanicae 29:19-68 (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Scholz, H. 1978: Synaptospermie und Heterodiasporie in der Gattung Bromus (Gramineae). Willdenowia 8:341-350 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type cr (competitors/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild G (grass)
Mowing tolerance 6 (between 5 and 7 (moderately tolerant to well tolerant to mowing))
Grazing tolerance 4 (between 3 and 5 (sensitive to moderately tolerant to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 5 (moderately tolerant to trampling)
Foraging value 4 (between 3 and 5 (little to intermediate forage value))
Foraging value for deer 2 (no or little forage value)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region wa (Western Asia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Hemeroby c (a-euhemerobic)
Hemeroby p (polyhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 3
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 3 (urbanoneutral)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T10.3.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T10.3.3.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T10.3.4.2 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.1.2 (null)
Alliance: Arrhenatherion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.2.2 (null)
Alliance: Artemisietea vulgaris
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.3 (null)
Alliance: Sisymbrienea
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.3.1 (null)
Alliance: Sisymbrion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T9.5.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.2 (Pioneer communities of hair-grasses)
Class: Koelerio-Corynephoretea
English circumscription 05.3 (Fescue-brome communities of dry and semi-dry grasslands)
Class: Festuco-Brometea
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
English circumscription 06.3 (Communities of annual trampling resistent plants)
Class: Polygono arenastri-Poetea annuae
English circumscription 06.4 (Annual ruderal communities)
Class: Sisymbrietea officinalis
English circumscription 06.6 (Chickweed and other field weed communities)
Class: Stellarietea mediae
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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