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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Centaurea nigrescens Willd. Asteraceae » Schwärzliche Flockenblume
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Centaurea nigrescens Willd. accepted
Jacea nigrescens (Willd.) Soják Synonym
Centaurea dubia subsp. nigrescens (Willd.) Hayek Synonym
>Centaurea nigrescens subsp. nigrescens accepted
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status N (neophyte)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin u (unknown)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 1 (Europe)
Reference Tutin, T.G., et al. 1964: Flora Europaea. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
Mode of introduction »
Mode of introduction B (contaminant)
Time and region of first naturalization »
Region of naturalization D (Germany)
Time of first naturalization 19th cent.
Degree of naturalization »
Maximum degree of naturalization EO (epecophyte)
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 11
Chromosome number 2n 44
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type R (palaeopolyploid; polyploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABABBABBABBBBBAABBBBBABBD
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf form »
Leaf form lang (long-leaf)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 7
End of flowering (months) 9
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 0 (not available)
Phenological season: not available
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction ssv (mostly by seed, rarely vegetatively)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a2 (protandrous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour purple red
Basic flower colour pu (purple)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 6 (67-85 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection pattern 1 (UV reflectance pattern present)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER B` (flower associations with totally hidden nectar)
Typical pollinators: bees, bumble bees, wasps, bombylides, syrphids
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 7.2a (flower heads, Asteraceae, only disk flowers)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Nu (nut)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type F (fruit)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages always [1]
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages sometimes [2]
Development of additional appendages  
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages always [1]
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages sometimes [2]
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 1.4
Weight (mean) [mg] 1.5
Weight (maximum) [mg] 1.5
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 3.0
Length (mean) [mm] 3.1
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.2
Width (minimum) [mm]  
Width (mean) [mm] 1.5
Width (maximum) [mm]  
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Height (mean) [mm] 0.9
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.9
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Bresinsky, A. 1963: Bau, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Inhaltsstoffe der Elaiosomen. Studien zur myrmekochoren Verbreitung von Samen und Früchten. Bibliotheca Botanica Vol. 126. (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Dittrich, M. 1968: Morphologische Untersuchungen an den Früchten der Subtribus Cardueae-Centaureinae (Compositae). Willdenowia 5:67-107 (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
McDonald, A.W., Bakker, J.P., Vegelin, K. 1996: Seed bank classification and ist importance for the restoration of species-rich flood-meadows. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:157-164 (Gattung)
Müller, P. 1955: Verbreitungsbiologie (Diasporologie) der Blütenpflanzen. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel Zürich . Verlag Hans Huber, Bern. (Gattung)
Salisbury, E.J. 1974: Seed size and mass in relation to environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 186:83-88 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
Hensen, I., Kentrup, M. 1998: Teucrio botryos-Melicetum ciliatae (Traubegamander-Wimpergrasflur) - Lebensstrategien in einer xerothemen Fels-Pioniergesellschaft. Tuexenia 18:217-236 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type c (competitors)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 4 (between 3 and 5 (sensitive to moderately tolerant to mowing))
Grazing tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to trampling))
Foraging value 4 (between 3 and 5 (little to intermediate forage value))
Foraging value for deer  
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 2
Oceanity »
Oceanity sk (subcontinental)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 3
Minimum level of oceantity: extreme central continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 3
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T10.3 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T6.2.2.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Bromion erecti
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.1.2 (null)
Alliance: Arrhenatherion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.3.2 (null)
Alliance: Molinion coeruleae p.p.
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.2 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.3 (Fescue-brome communities of dry and semi-dry grasslands)
Class: Festuco-Brometea
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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