search and information system
on vascular plants in Germany
a cooperation of
&
 

Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Actaea spicata L. Ranunculaceae » Schwarzfrüchtiges Christophskraut
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Actaea spicata L. accepted
Actaea spicata var. nigra L. Synonym
Actaea nigra (L.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 8
Chromosome number 2n 16
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type D (diploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBABBBBBBBB
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes r (Erosulate plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Perttula, U. 1941: Untersuchungen über die generative und vegetative Vermehrung der Blütenpflanzen in der Wald-Hainwiesen- und Hainfelsen-Vegetation. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennici, Ser. A, 58:1-388
Lukasiewicz, A. 1962: Morfologizno-rozwojowe typy bylin (Morphologic development types of perennials). The Poznan Soc. of Friends of Science. Dept. math. -nat. Sci. Publ. Ser. Biol. (Posen) 27:1-398
Eriksson, O. 1995: Asynchronous flowering reduces seed predation in the perennial forest herb Actaea spicata. Acta Oecologica - International Journal of Ecology 16:195-203
Salisbury, E. 1952: Downs and dunes. Their plant life and its environment. Bells & Sons, London
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy y (hygromorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form gefie (pinnate)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 6
Duration of flowering (months) 2
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 5 (Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum-Phase)
Phenological season: end of mid spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: Sexuelle Samenproduktion, da keine Apomikten in Gattung bekannt
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy g2 (protogynous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Eriksson, O. 1995: Asynchronous flowering reduces seed predation in the perennial forest herb Actaea spicata. Acta Oecologica - International Journal of Ecology 16:195-203
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance at failure of outcrossing [7]
Reference Eriksson, O. 1995: Asynchronous flowering reduces seed predation in the perennial forest herb Actaea spicata. Acta Oecologica - International Journal of Ecology 16:195-203
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Daumann, E. 1969: Zur Blütenmorphologie und Bestäubungsökologie einiger Ranunculaceen (Cimicifuga L., Actaea L., Thalictrum L.). Preslia (Praha) 41:213-219
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system AFXF (mixed mating)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: vgl. Klassifizierungsschema Abb.
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 1 (none)
Floral rewards 2 (pollen)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 4 (plenty)
Flower color »
Flower colour white
Basic flower colour w (white)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Po (pollen flowers)
Typical pollinators: short tongued bees, syrphids, flies, beetles
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 1.1 (pollen flower)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Be (berry)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type F (fruit)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type D2 (triangular germinule/with perigone or pappus)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Heteromorphic type D1 (plane or biconvex germinule/with perigone or pappus)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Sizes »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type D2 (triangular germinule/with perigone or pappus)
Length (minimum) [mm] 8.0
Length (mean) [mm] 10.2
Length (maximum) [mm] 13.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 8.0
Width (mean) [mm] 10.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 13.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 8.0
Height (mean) [mm] 10.5
Height (maximum) [mm] 13.0
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type D1 (plane or biconvex germinule/with perigone or pappus)
Length (minimum) [mm] 8.0
Length (mean) [mm] 10.2
Length (maximum) [mm] 13.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 8.0
Width (mean) [mm] 10.5
Width (maximum) [mm] 13.0
Height (minimum) [mm] 8.0
Height (mean) [mm] 10.5
Height (maximum) [mm] 13.0
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type D2 (triangular germinule/with perigone or pappus)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.6
Length (mean) [mm] 3.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 4.5
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Width (mean) [mm] 2.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 2.7
Height (minimum) [mm] 1.5
Height (mean) [mm] 1.8
Height (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type D1 (plane or biconvex germinule/with perigone or pappus)
Length (minimum) [mm] 2.6
Length (mean) [mm] 3.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 4.5
Width (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Width (mean) [mm] 2.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 2.7
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Height (mean) [mm] 1.0
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.3
special references:
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type cs (competitors/stress-tolerators)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity so (suboceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 3
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby a (ahemerobic)
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T1.1.1.3 (null)
Alliance: Galio odorati-Fagenion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.1.5 (null)
Alliance: Lonicero alpigenae-Fagenion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.2.1 (null)
Alliance: Tilio platyphylli-Acerion pseudoplatani
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.4.2 (null)
Alliance: Galio-Abietenion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 07.2 (Alpine-montane tall herb and small-reed communities)
Class: Stellario nemorum-Geranietea sylvatici
English circumscription 09.5 (Blackthorn and buckthorn shrubs)
Class: Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae
English circumscription 10.2 (Mesophilous, summer-green deciduous forests)
Class: Carpino-Fagetea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


Display of complete information for the selected species. Only traits available for the selected species are displayed.