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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Viola riviniana Rchb. Violaceae » Hain-Veilchen
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Viola riviniana Rchb. accepted
Viola riviniana subsp. minor (Greg.) Valentine Synonym
Viola riviniana subsp. riviniana Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 10
Chromosome number 2n 40
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 10
Chromosome number 2n 46
Chromosome number (Germany) False
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level  
Ploidy type  
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.7
Chromosome number 40
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Grime, J.P., Shacklock, J.M.L., Band, S.R. 1985: Nuclear DNA contents, shoot phenology and species co-existence in a limestone grassland community. New Phytologist 100:435-445
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABBBBBBBAABBBABBC
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses rh (Rhizome)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Perttula, U. 1941: Untersuchungen über die generative und vegetative Vermehrung der Blütenpflanzen in der Wald-Hainwiesen- und Hainfelsen-Vegetation. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennici, Ser. A, 58:1-388
Wittrock, V.B. 1884: Über Wurzelsprosse bei krautigen Gewächsen, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf ihre verschiedene biologische Bedeutung. Biol. Centralbl. 17:227-232
Meusel, H., Kästner, A. 1974: Zur Wuchsform einiger Veilchenarten. Phyton 16:127-135
Kästner, A., Karrer, G. 1995: Übersicht der Wuchsformentypen als Grundlage für deren Erfassung in der "Flora von Österreich". Florae Austriacae Novit. 3:1-51
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf anatomy y (hygromorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form voll (full)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 4
End of flowering (months) 6
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 3 (Prunus avium-Ranunculus auricomus-Phase)
Phenological season: end of early spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Beattie, A.J. 1969: Studies in the pollination ecology of Viola. 1. The pollen-content of stigmatic cavities. Watsonia 7:142-156
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance at failure of outcrossing [7]
Reference Beattie, A.J. 1971: Pollination mechanisms in Viola. New Phytologist 70:343-360
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector kl (cleistogamy)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance often [3]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system AF (facultative autogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: vgl. Klassifizierungsschema Abb.
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour light blue violet, spur whitish
Basic flower colour vi (violet)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 2 (8-15 %)
UV reflection pattern 0 (no UV reflectance patterns)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Hb (bee flowers )
Typical pollinators: bees
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 5.5 (lip flowers, Viola type)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Ka (capsule)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages always [1]
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 1.0
Weight (mean) [mg] 1.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 2.1
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint True
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 1.0
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 1.0
Weight (mean) [mg] 1.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 2.1
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.7
Length (mean) [mm] 1.8
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.9
Width (minimum) [mm]  
Width (mean) [mm] 1.4
Width (maximum) [mm]  
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.7
Length (mean) [mm] 1.8
Length (maximum) [mm] 1.9
Width (minimum) [mm]  
Width (mean) [mm] 1.4
Width (maximum) [mm]  
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm]  
Height (maximum) [mm]  
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L. 1997: The soil seed bank of undisturbed and disturbed dry limestone grassland on Öland (Sweden). Z. Ökologie Nat. sch. 6:9-18 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Bresinsky, A. 1963: Bau, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Inhaltsstoffe der Elaiosomen. Studien zur myrmekochoren Verbreitung von Samen und Früchten. Bibliotheca Botanica Vol. 126. (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Frey, W., Hauser, A. 1996: Onopordetum acanthii (Eselsdistel-Gesellschaft) im mittleren und unteren Unstruttal - Lebensstrategien in einer wärmeliebenden Ruderalgesellschaft. Hausknechtia, Beiheft 6:1-84 (Gattung)
Häfliger, T.J., Wolf, M. 1988: Dicot Weeds. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basel (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Müller, P. 1955: Verbreitungsbiologie (Diasporologie) der Blütenpflanzen. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel Zürich . Verlag Hans Huber, Bern. (Gattung)
Pacini, E. 1990: Mercurialis annua L. (Euphorbiaceae) seed interactions with the ant Messor structor (Latr.), Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 39:253-262 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 4
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 2 (moderately urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T1.1.2.3 (null)
Alliance: Carpinion betuli
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T1.1.2.5 (null)
Alliance: Quercion robori-petraeae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 09.5 (Blackthorn and buckthorn shrubs)
Class: Rhamno-Prunetea spinosae
English circumscription 10.2 (Mesophilous, summer-green deciduous forests)
Class: Carpino-Fagetea
English circumscription 10.3 (Birch-oak forests)
Class: Quercetea robori-petraeae
English circumscription 10.4 (Thermophilous dry oak forests)
Class: Quercetea pubescentis-petraeae
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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