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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Ranunculus flammula L. Ranunculaceae » Brennender Hahnenfuß
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Ranunculus flammula L. accepted
Ranunculus flammula var. gracilis G. Mey. Synonym
Ranunculus flammula subsp. flammula Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 8
Chromosome number 2n 32
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 8
Chromosome number 2n 16
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level  
Ploidy type  
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 12.7
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 274:227-274
DNA content (pg/2C) 13.9
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Leitch, I.J. 1995: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Annals of Botany 76:113-176
DNA content (pg/2C) 13.7
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Leitch, I.J. 1995: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Annals of Botany 76:113-176
DNA content (pg/2C) 12.3
Chromosome number 32
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 False
Reference Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.S. 1976: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 274:227-274
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBABBBBABBABDAAB
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span p (pluriennial-pollakanthic)
Qualifier always [1]
Vegetative propagation »
Vegetative propagation a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Shoot metamorphoses »
Shoot metamorphoses a (Runner)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Irmisch, T. 1856: Ueber einige Ranunculaceen. Bot. Ztg. 14:111-129
Kästner, A., Karrer, G. 1995: Übersicht der Wuchsformentypen als Grundlage für deren Erfassung in der "Flora von Österreich". Florae Austriacae Novit. 3:1-51
Glück, H. 1911: Biologische und morphologische Untersuchungen über Wasser- und Sumpfgewächse. 3. Aufl., Jena
Kutschera, L., Lichtenegger, E. 1992: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Grünlandpflanzen. Bd. 2 Pteridophyta und Dicotyledonae (Magnoliopsida). Teil I Morphologie, Anatomie, Ökologie, Verbreitung, Soziologie, Wirtschaft. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy e (helomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form lang (long-leaf)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 9
Duration of flowering (months) 5
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 5 (Sorbus aucuparia-Galium odoratum-Phase)
Phenological season: end of mid spring
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction sv (by seed and vegetatively)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a2 (protandrous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility I+ (± self-incompatibel)
Reference Gibbs, P.E., Gornall, R.J. 1976: A biosystematic study of the creeping spearworts at Loch Leven, Kinross, Scotland. New Phytologist 77:777-785
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference de Nettancourt, D. 1977: Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer, Berlin
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance at failure of outcrossing [7]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Floral rewards 2 (pollen)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: pers. obs.
Amount of floral reward 4 (plenty)
Flower color »
Flower colour golden yellow, glossy
Basic flower colour g (yellow)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 4 (28-39 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection pattern 1 (UV reflectance pattern present)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER AB (flowers with partly hidden nectar)
Typical pollinators: syrphids, bees
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 1.2bc (disk flowers with nectar ± hidden nectaries at base of petals)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type SaNu (aggregate nutlets)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type Fch (fruitlet)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type Fch (fruitlet)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages always [1]
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore Fch (fruitlet)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.4
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.4
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore Fch (fruitlet)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.4
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.4
Sizes »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore Fch (fruitlet)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Length (mean) [mm] 1.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 1.1
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.3
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 0.7
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.8
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore Fch (fruitlet)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.2
Length (mean) [mm] 1.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 2.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.8
Width (mean) [mm] 1.1
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.3
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.5
Height (mean) [mm] 0.7
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.8
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Taylor, K., Markham, B. 1978: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ranunculus ficaria L. (Ficaria verna Huds.; Ficaria ranunculoides Moench). Journal of Ecology 66:1011-1031 (Gattung)
Harper, J.L. 1957: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ranunculus acris L. (Ranunculus acer auct. plur.). Journal of Ecology 45:289-314 (Gattung)
Harper, J.L. 1957: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ranunculus repens L.. Journal of Ecology 45:314-325 (Gattung)
Harper, J.L. 1957: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Ranunculus bulbosus L.. Journal of Ecology 45:325-342 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Berggren, G. 1981: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 3 (Salicaceae-Cruciferaceae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Bresinsky, A. 1963: Bau, Entwicklungsgeschichte und Inhaltsstoffe der Elaiosomen. Studien zur myrmekochoren Verbreitung von Samen und Früchten. Bibliotheca Botanica Vol. 126. (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Häfliger, T.J., Wolf, M. 1988: Dicot Weeds. Documenta CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basel (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
McDonald, A.W., Bakker, J.P., Vegelin, K. 1996: Seed bank classification and ist importance for the restoration of species-rich flood-meadows. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:157-164 (Gattung)
Müller, P. 1955: Verbreitungsbiologie (Diasporologie) der Blütenpflanzen. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel Zürich . Verlag Hans Huber, Bern. (Gattung)
Salisbury, E.J. 1974: Seed size and mass in relation to environment. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, Series B 186:83-88 (Gattung)
Vogler, P. 1901: Ueber die Verbreitungsmittel der schweizerischen Alpenpflanzen. Flora 89 (Ergänzungsband zum Jg.1901):1-137 (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence N (fallow lands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 4 (between 3 and 5 (sensitive to moderately tolerant to mowing))
Grazing tolerance 7 (well tolerant to grazing)
Trampling tolerance 3 (sensitive to trampling)
Foraging value 1 (poisonous for livestock (and humans))
Foraging value for deer 2 (no or little forage value)
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 4
Oceanity »
Oceanity os (weak oceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region ws (Western Siberia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 1 (urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat L2.3 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat L3.1.6 (null)
Alliance: Littorelletea uniflorae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat L3.2.6 (null)
Alliance: Littorelletea uniflorae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat L3.3.7.3 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat L3.9.6 (null)
Alliance: Littorelletea uniflorae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat L4.4 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat S2.2.1 (null)
Alliance: Caricion nigrae
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 01.4 (Mudwort communities)
Class: Isoeto-Littorelletea uniflorae
English circumscription 01.6 (Communities of reeds and tall sedges)
Class: Phragmito-Magnocaricetea
English circumscription 02.2 (Communities of pools and bog-pools)
Class: Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


Display of complete information for the selected species. Only traits available for the selected species are displayed.