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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Fabaceae » Gewöhnlicher Steinklee
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. accepted
Trifolium officinalis L. Basionym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status A (archaeophyte)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin u (unknown)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
Mode of introduction »
Mode of introduction VN (escaped crop and timber plant)
Degree of naturalization »
Maximum degree of naturalization AG (agriophyte)
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 8
Chromosome number 2n 16
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type D (diploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: DNA content »
DNA content »
DNA content (pg/2C) 2.3
Chromosome number 16
Quality chromosome number known and occurring in Germany [b]
Authorised in BENNET & LEITCH 2001 True
Reference Bennett, M.D., Leitch, I.J. 1995: Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Annals of Botany 76:113-176
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABBBAABAAAAAAAABCA
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life form T (Therophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span a (annual)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span b (biennial)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier always [1]
Root metamorphoses »
Root metamorphoses r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes »
Rosettes r (Erosulate plant)
Qualifier always [1]
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Turkington, R.A., Cavers, P.B., Rempel, E. 1978: The biology of Canadian weeds. 29. Melilotus alba Desr. and M. officinalis (L.) Lam.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 58:523-537
Raunkiaer, C. 1934: The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence s (summer green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy s (scleromorphic)
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form gefin (palmate)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 6
End of flowering (months) 9
Duration of flowering (months) 4
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 6 (Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction s (by seed/by spore)
Reference Turkington, R.A., Cavers, P.B., Rempel, E. 1978: The biology of Canadian weeds. 29. Melilotus alba Desr. and M. officinalis (L.) Lam.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 58:523-537
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy h (homogamous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SC (self-compatibel)
Reference Kirchner, O. 1905: Über die Wirkung der Selbstbestäubung bei den Papilionaceen. Naturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Land- und Forstwirtschaft 3:97-111
Systematic reference species [S]
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SI (self-incompatibel)
Reference East, E.M. 1940: The distribution of self-sterility in the flowering plants. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 82:449-518
Systematic reference species [S]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference de Nettancourt, D. 1977: Incompatibility in angiosperms. Springer, Berlin
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance at failure of outcrossing [7]
Reference Kirchner, O. 1905: Über die Wirkung der Selbstbestäubung bei den Papilionaceen. Naturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Land- und Forstwirtschaft 3:97-111
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Turkington, R.A., Cavers, P.B., Rempel, E. 1978: The biology of Canadian weeds. 29. Melilotus alba Desr. and M. officinalis (L.) Lam.. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 58:523-537
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
P/O ratio »
P/O ratio 1683.0
Reference Small, E. 1988: Pollen-ovule patterns in tribe Trifolieae (Leguminosae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 160:195-205
Floral rewards »
Floral rewards 1 (nectar)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Amount of floral reward 3 (present)
Flower color »
Flower colour yellow
Basic flower colour g (yellow)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 4 (28-39 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 1 (0-7 %)
UV reflection pattern 1 (UV reflectance pattern present)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER H (hymenoptere flowers)
Typical pollinators: hymenopteres
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 6.1a (flag blossom, Fabaceae type, valvular mechanism)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Hü (legume)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type FZb (fruit with appendage)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages sometimes [2]
Development of additional appendages sometimes [2]
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 2.2
Weight (mean) [mg] 2.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 2.7
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore F (fruit)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 2.2
Weight (mean) [mg] 2.4
Weight (maximum) [mg] 2.7
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 2.1
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg]  
Weight (mean) [mg] 2.1
Weight (maximum) [mg]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore TF (mericarp)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.5
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.6
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.7
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore TF (mericarp)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.5
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.6
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.7
Sizes »
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 3.0
Length (mean) [mm] 3.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 5.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Width (mean) [mm] 2.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 2.5
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm] 1.5
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore FZb (fruit with appendage)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 3.0
Length (mean) [mm] 3.7
Length (maximum) [mm] 5.0
Width (minimum) [mm] 2.0
Width (mean) [mm] 2.2
Width (maximum) [mm] 2.5
Height (minimum) [mm]  
Height (mean) [mm] 1.5
Height (maximum) [mm]  
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.7
Length (mean) [mm] 2.2
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.1
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.9
Width (mean) [mm] 1.4
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.8
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Height (mean) [mm] 1.0
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.2
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm] 1.7
Length (mean) [mm] 2.2
Length (maximum) [mm] 3.1
Width (minimum) [mm] 0.9
Width (mean) [mm] 1.4
Width (maximum) [mm] 1.8
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.6
Height (mean) [mm] 1.0
Height (maximum) [mm] 1.2
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Briemle, G. 1996: Farbatlas Kräuter und Gräser. Ulmer, Stuttgart (Gattung)
Anderberg, A.L. 1994: Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. - Part 4 (Resedaceae - Umbelliferae). Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Heinisch, O. 1955: Samenatlas der wichtigsten Futterpflanzen und ihrer Unkräuter. Deutsche Akad. Landwirtsch.-Wiss., Berlin (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type cr (competitors/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence N (fallow lands)
Guild Lk (herbaceous legume)
Mowing tolerance 4 (between 3 and 5 (sensitive to moderately tolerant to mowing))
Grazing tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to trampling))
Foraging value 7 (high forage value)
Foraging value for deer  
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone m (meridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 4
Oceanity »
Oceanity sk (subcontinental)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 3
Minimum level of oceantity: extreme central continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
Floristic region wa (Western Asia)
Continent of floristic region: a (Asien)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby b (b-euhemerobic)
Hemeroby c (a-euhemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 3 (urbanoneutral)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat L4.1.4 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T10.3.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T10.3.3.1 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T10.3.4.2 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T10.5.4 (null)
Alliance: ???
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T7.5.2.1 (null)
Alliance: Convolvulo-Agropyrion repentis
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T8.2.2.2 (null)
Alliance: Echio-Melilotion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
Habitat T9.1.2.2 (null)
Alliance: Caucalidion platycarpi
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 06.4 (Annual ruderal communities)
Class: Sisymbrietea officinalis
English circumscription 06.5 (Eusiberian ruderal mugwort and thistles communities, and couch-grasslands)
Class: Artemisietea vulgaris
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
DNA content »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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