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Overview of all traits of a species

species information (Systematics, BiolFlor-Names, Status)
BiolFlor-Name family german name(s)
Campanula patula L. Campanulaceae » Wiesen-Glockenblume
reference
Kühn, I., Klotz, S. 2002: Systematik, Taxonomie und Nomenklatur. In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.): BIOLFLOR - Eine Datenbank mit biologisch-ökologischen Merkmalen zur Flora von Deutschland. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde. Bonn »
 
Synonymy (taxonomy after Wisskirchen & Haeupler, 1998)
Campanula patula L. accepted
Campanula flaccida (Wallr.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. Synonym
Campanula patula subsp. neglecta (Schult.) O. Schwarz Synonym
Campanula patula var. flaccida Wallr. Synonym
Campanula patula subsp. flaccida (Wallr.) Jáv. Synonym
Campanula patula var. arcuata Becker Synonym
 
group of traits: Status »
Floristic status »
Floristic status I (indigenous)
Evolutionary origin »
Evolutionary origin n (naturally)
Region of origin »
Region of origin 0 (not specified)
Endemism »
Endemism 0 (not specified)
Reference unbekannt
 
group of traits: Chromosome number »
Chromosome number »
Basic chromosome number 10
Chromosome number 2n 20
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 2 (diploid)
Ploidy type D (diploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
Basic chromosome number 10
Chromosome number 2n 40
Chromosome number (Germany) True
Most common chromosome race False
Ploidy level 4 (tetraploid)
Ploidy type P (polyploid with haploid basic number)
Reference Oberdorfer, E. 1983: Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. Ulmer, Stuttgart
 
group of traits: Phylogeny »
Phylogeny code »
Phylogeny code BBBBBBBBBABABBABBBABBAABC
 
group of traits: Morphology »
Life form »
Life form H (Hemicryptophyte)
Qualifier always [1]
Life span »
Life span b (biennial)
Qualifier always [1]
Storage organs »
Storage organs r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier sometimes [2]
Root metamorphoses »
Root metamorphoses r (Primary storage root)
Qualifier sometimes [2]
Rosettes »
Rosettes h (Hemirosette plant)
Qualifier always [1]
special references:
Shulkina, T.V., Zemskova, E.A. 1983: Chromosome numbers and life-forms of certain Campanula (Campanulaceae) species criticae. Botaniceskij Zhurnal 68:866-875
Golubev, V.N. 1957: Materialy k ekologo-morfologiceskoj i geneticeskoj charakteristikje zhizjennych form travjanistych rastenij. Botaniceskij Zhurnal 42:1055-1072
Briemle, G., Schreiber, K.F. 1994: Zur Frage der Beeinflussung pflanzlicher Lebens- und Wuchsformen durch unterschiedliche Landschaftspflegemaßnahmen. Tuexenia 14:229-244
Kutschera, L., Lichtenegger, E. 1992: Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Grünlandpflanzen. Bd. 2 Pteridophyta und Dicotyledonae (Magnoliopsida). Teil I Morphologie, Anatomie, Ökologie, Verbreitung, Soziologie, Wirtschaft. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York
 
group of traits: Leaf traits »
Leaf persistence »
Leaf persistence i (persistent green)
Leaf anatomy »
Leaf anatomy m (mesomorphic)
Leaf form »
Leaf form lang (long-leaf)
 
group of traits: Flowering phenology »
Flowering phenology »
Begin of flowering (months) 5
End of flowering (months) 7
Duration of flowering (months) 3
Number of flowering phases 0
Symphenological Groups »
Phenological group 6 (Cornus sanguinea-Melica uniflora-Phase)
Phenological season: start of early summer
Reference Dierschke, H 1995: Phänologische und symphänologische Artengruppen von Blütenpflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Tuexenia 15: 523-560
 
group of traits: Floral and reproductive biology »
Type of reproduction »
Type of reproduction s (by seed/by spore)
Reference Krumbiegel, A. 2002: Morphologie der vegetativen Organe (außer Blätter). In: Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Durka, W. (Hrsg.) BiolFlor - Biologisch-ökologische Daten zur Flora Deutschlands, S. 1-2, Bonn
Type of seed production »
Type of seed production s (amphimictic, sexual)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dicliny »
Dicliny so (hermaphroditic)
Abundance always [1]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Dichogamy »
Dichogamy a3 (pronounced protandrous)
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility »
Self-sterility and self-incompatibility SI (self-incompatibel)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: wahrscheinlich SI, da nur SI-Arten in Gattung/Artengruppe bekannt
Systematic reference genus [G]
SI mechanism »
SI mechanism GSI (gametophytic self-incompatibility)
Reference Stephenson, A.G., Good, S.V., Vogler, D.W. 2000: Interrelationships among inbreeding depression, plasticity in the self-incompatibility system, and the breeding system of Campanula rapunculoides L. (Campanulaceae). Annals of Botany 85A:211-219
Pollen vector »
Pollen vector se (selfing)
Pollen vector group: se (Selbstbestäubung)
Abundance possible [5]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Pollen vector in (insects)
Pollen vector group: zo (Tierbestäubung)
Abundance the rule [2]
Reference Knuth, P. 1898: Handbuch der Blütenbiologie. Leipzig
Systematic reference species [S]
Breeding system »
Breeding system X (allogamous)
Reference Anmerkung 2002: xenogam, da SI
Flower color »
Flower colour pink lilac
Basic flower colour ro (pink)
Reference Schubert, R., Jäger, E.J., Werner, K. (Hrsg.) 1987: Exkursionsflora Band 3. Atlas der Gefäßpflanzen. 6. Aufl., Volk und Wissen, Berlin
UV reflection of the flower »
UV reflection in the periphery of the flower 6 (67-85 %)
UV reflection in the centre of the flower 0 (unknown)
UV reflection pattern 2 (unknown)
Flower class after MUELLER »
Flower class after MUELLER Hb (bee flowers )
Typical pollinators: bees
Flower type after KUGLER »
Flower type after KUGLER 3.2 (bell shaped flowers with sticky pollen)
 
group of traits: Seed traits »
Fruit type »
Fruit type Ka (capsule)
Diaspore type »
Diaspore type S (seed)
Germinule type »
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Germinule type S (seed)
Information available True
Development of nutritious appendages  
Development of flat appendages  
Development of elongated appendages  
Development of additional appendages  
Weights »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.0
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.0
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.0
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Weight (minimum) [mg] 0.0
Weight (mean) [mg] 0.0
Weight (maximum) [mg] 0.0
Sizes »
Measured object Germinule
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm]  
Length (mean) [mm] 0.5
Length (maximum) [mm]  
Width (minimum) [mm]  
Width (mean) [mm] 0.4
Width (maximum) [mm]  
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.2
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.3
Measured object Diaspore
Type of germinule or diaspore S (seed)
Constraint False
Heteromorphic type n (not heteromorphic)
Length (minimum) [mm]  
Length (mean) [mm] 0.5
Length (maximum) [mm]  
Width (minimum) [mm]  
Width (mean) [mm] 0.4
Width (maximum) [mm]  
Height (minimum) [mm] 0.2
Height (mean) [mm] 0.2
Height (maximum) [mm] 0.3
special references:
Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A., Neal, A.M., Shaw, S. 1981: A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology 69:1017-1069 (Gattung)
Thompson, K., Band, S.R., Hodgson, J.G. 1993: Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7:236-241 (Gattung)
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R. 1988: Comparative Plant Ecology. Unwin Hyman, London (Gattung)
Briemle, G. 1996: Farbatlas Kräuter und Gräser. Ulmer, Stuttgart (Gattung)
Bakker, J.P., Bakker, E.S., Rosén, E., Verweij, G.L. 1997: The soil seed bank of undisturbed and disturbed dry limestone grassland on Öland (Sweden). Z. Ökologie Nat. sch. 6:9-18 (Gattung)
Beijerink, W. 1947: Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Biol. Stat. Wijster, Wageningen (Gattung)
Brouwer, W., Stählin, A. 1955: Handbuch der Samenkunde. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main (Gattung)
Cremer, J., Partzsch, M., Zimmermann, M., Schwär, C., Goltz, H. 1991: Acker- und Gartenwildkräuter: ein Bestimmungsbuch. . Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag, Berlin. (Gattung)
Emig, W., Leins, P. 1996: Ausbreitungsbiologische Untersuchungen in der Gattung Campanula L. II. Die Bedeutung der Kapselmorphologie und der Samenausgestaltung für das Ausbreitungsverhalten. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik 118:505-528 (Gattung)
Hanf, M. 1984: Ackerunkräuter Europas mit ihren Keimlingen und Samen. . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München, Wien, Zürich. (Gattung)
Luftensteiner, H.W. 1982: Untersuchungen zur Verbreitungssbiologie von Pflanzengemeinschaften an vier Standorten in Niederösterreich. Bibliotheca Botanica 135:1-68 (Gattung)
Vogler, P. 1901: Ueber die Verbreitungsmittel der schweizerischen Alpenpflanzen. Flora 89 (Ergänzungsband zum Jg.1901):1-137 (Gattung)
 
group of traits: Ecological strategy »
Strategy type »
Strategy type csr (competitors/stress-tolerators/ruderals)
 
group of traits: Indicator values for grassland species »
Grassland utilization indicator values »
Occurrence GE (little used grasslands)
Guild K (forb)
Mowing tolerance 5 (moderately tolerant to mowing)
Grazing tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to grazing))
Trampling tolerance 2 (between 1 and 3 (intolerant to sensitive to trampling))
Foraging value 4 (between 3 and 5 (little to intermediate forage value))
Foraging value for deer  
 
group of traits: Range »
Floristic zone and altitudinal level »
Floristic zone e (submeridional)
Altitudinal level m (montane)
Status natural range
Floristic zone p (southern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone n (northern temperate)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Floristic zone b (boreal)
Altitudinal level  
Status natural range
Number of inhabited floristic zones »
Number of inhabited floristic zones 3
Oceanity »
Oceanity sos (weak suboceanic)
Amplitude of Oceanity: 4
Minimum level of oceantity: extreme central continental climate
Maximum level of oceantity: extreme oceanic climate
Status natural range
Floristic region »
Floristic region e (Europe)
Continent of floristic region: e (Europa)
Status natural range
 
group of traits: Hemeroby »
Hemeroby »
Hemeroby o (oligohemerobic)
Hemeroby m (mesohemerobic)
Number of hemerobic levels »
Number of hemerobic levels 2
 
group of traits: Urbanity »
Urbanity »
Urbanity 2 (moderately urbanophobic)
 
group of traits: Habitats »
Habitat »
Habitat T7.1.2 (null)
Alliance: Arrhenatherion
Occurrence questionable False
Occurence restricted False
Annotation  
 
group of traits: Sociology »
Class »
English circumscription 05.4 (Commercially used grasslands)
Class: Molinio-Arrhenatheretea
 
 
groups of traits for this species
Status »
Chromosome number »
Phylogeny »
Morphology »
Leaf traits »
Flowering phenology »
Floral and reproductive biology »
Seed traits »
Ecological strategy »
Indicator values for grassland species »
Range »
Hemeroby »
Urbanity »
Habitats »
Sociology »


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